Lynch C, Kristjansdottir AG, Te Velde SJ, Lien N, Roos E, Thorsdottir I, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of 11-year-old children in ten European countries--the PRO GREENS cross-sectional survey. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17:2436–44.
Fayet-Moore F, McConnell A, Cassettari T, Tuck K, Petocz P, Kim J. Vegetable intake in Australian children and adolescents: the importance of consumption frequency, eating occasion and its association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Public Health Nutr. 2020;23:474–87.
National Cancer Institute. Usual dietary intakes: food intakes, U.S. Population, 2007–10. National Cancer Institute; 2019. Available from: https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/diet/usualintakes/national-data-usual-dietary-intakes-2007-to-2010.pdf
Afshin A. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet. 2019;393(10184):1958–72.
Nour M, Lutze SA, Grech A, Allman-Farinelli M. The relationship between vegetable intake and weight outcomes: a systematic review of cohort studies. Nutrients. 2018;10:1626.
Li M, Fan Y, Zhang X, Hou W, Tang Z. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e005497.
Willett W, Rockström J, Loken B, Springmann M, Lang T, Vermeulen S, et al. Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT-lancet commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet. 2019;393(10170):447–92.
Erkkola M, Kronberg-Kippilä C, Kyttälä P, Lehtisalo J, Reinivuo H, Tapanainen H, et al. Sucrose in the diet of 3-year-old Finnish children: sources, determinants and impact on food and nutrient intake. Br J Nutr. 2009;101:1209–17.
Afeiche MC, Koyratty BNS, Wang D, Jacquier EF, Lê KA. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States. Pediatr Obes. 2018;13:204–12.
Louie JCY, Tapsell LC. Association between intake of total vs added sugar on diet quality: a systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2015;73:837–57.
Keller A, Torre BD, S. Sugar-sweetened beverages and obesity among children and adolescents: A Review of Systematic Literature Reviews. Child Obes. 2015;11:338–46.
Spinelli A, Buoncristiano M, Nardone P, Starc G, Hejgaard T, Júlíusson PB, et al. Thinness, overweight, and obesity in 6- to 9-year-old children from 36 countries: the World Health Organization European childhood obesity surveillance initiative-COSI 2015-2017. Obes Rev. 2021;22(Suppl 6):e13214.
Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet. 2014;384(9945):766–81.
Mikkilä V, Räsänen L, Raitakari OT, Pietinen P, Viikari J. Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. Br J Nutr. 2005;93:923–31.
Craigie AM, Lake AA, Kelly SA, Adamson AJ, Mathers JC. Tracking of obesity-related behaviours from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review. Maturitas. 2011;70:266–84.
Hodder RK, Stacey FG, O’Brien KM, Wyse RJ, Clinton-McHarg T, Tzelepis F, et al. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD008552.
Vargas-Garcia EJ, Evans CEL, Prestwich A, Sykes-Muskett BJ, Hooson J, Cade JE. Interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or increase water intake: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2017;18:1350–63.
Pinket AS, Van Lippevelde W, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Deforche B, Cardon G, Androutsos O, et al. Effect and process evaluation of a cluster randomized control trial on water intake and beverage consumption in preschoolers from six European countries: the ToyBox-study. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0152928.
van de Kolk I, Verjans-Janssen SRB, Gubbels JS, Kremers SPJ, Gerards SMPL. Systematic review of interventions in the childcare setting with direct parental involvement: effectiveness on child weight status and energy balance-related behaviours. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2019;16:110.
Scaglioni S, De Cosmi V, Ciappolino V, Parazzini F, Brambilla P, Agostoni C. Factors influencing Children’s eating Behaviours. Nutrients. 2018;10:706.
Yee AZH, Lwin MO, Ho SS. The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:47.
Vepsäläinen H, Korkalo L, Mikkilä V, Lehto R, Ray C, Nissinen K, et al. Dietary patterns and their associations with home food availability among Finnish pre-school children: a cross-sectional study. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21:1232–42.
Bekelman TA, Bellows LL, Johnson SL. Are family routines modifiable determinants of preschool Children’s eating, dietary intake, and growth? A review of intervention studies. Curr Nutr Rep. 2017;6:171–89.
de Bruijn GJ, Kremers SPJ, de Vries H, van Mechelen W, Brug J. Associations of social-environmental and individual-level factors with adolescent soft drink consumption: results from the SMILE study. Health Educ Res. 2007;22:227–37.
Bartholomew Eldredge LK, Parcel GS, Markham CM, Ruiter RAC, Fernandez ME. Planning health promotion programs — an intervention mapping approach. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2016.
Durlak JA, DuPre EP. Implementation matters: a review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. Am J Community Psychol. 2008;41:327–50.
Saunders RP, Ward D, Felton GM, Dowda M, Pate RR. Examining the link between program implementation and behavior outcomes in the lifestyle education for activity program (LEAP). Eval Program Plann. 2006;29:352–64.
Saunders RP, Wilcox S, Baruth M, Dowda M. Process evaluation methods, implementation fidelity results and relationship to physical activity and healthy eating in the faith, activity, and nutrition (FAN) study. Eval Program Plann. 2014;43:93–102.
Verloigne M, Ahrens W, De Henauw S, Verbestel V, Mårild S, Pigeot I, et al. Process evaluation of the IDEFICS school intervention: putting the evaluation of the effect on children’s objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in context. Obes Rev. 2015;16(Suppl 2):89–102.
De Craemer M, Verbestel V, Verloigne M, Androutsos O, Moreno L, Iotova V, et al. Combining effect and process evaluation on European preschool Children’s snacking behavior in a kindergarten-based, family-involved cluster randomized controlled trial: the ToyBox study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:7312.
Ray C, Kaukonen R, Lehto E, Vepsäläinen H, Sajaniemi N, Erkkola M, et al. Development of the DAGIS intervention study: a preschool-based family-involving study promoting preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours and self-regulation skills. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:1670.
Salmon J, Brown H, Hume C. Effects of strategies to promote children’s physical activity on potential mediators. Int J Obes. 2009;33(Suppl 1):S66–73.
Brown H, Hume C, Pearson N, Salmon J. A systematic review of intervention effects on potential mediators of children’s physical activity. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:165.
Ray C, Figuereido R, Vepsäläinen H, Lehto R, Pajulahti R, Skaffari E, et al. Effects of the preschool-based family-involving DAGIS intervention program on Children’s energy balance-related behaviors and self-regulation skills: a clustered randomized controlled trial. Nutrients. 2020;12:2259.
Ray C, Figueiredo R, Pajulahti R, Vepsäläinen H, Lehto E, Lehto R, et al. Effects of the preschool-based family-involving DAGIS intervention on family environment: a cluster randomised trial. Nutrients. 2020;12:3387.
Määttä S, Lehto R, Nislin M, Ray C, Erkkola M, Sajaniemi N, et al. Increased health and well-being in preschools (DAGIS): rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:402.
Maloney JE, Lawlor MS, Shonert-Reichl KA, Whitehead J. A universal, mindfulness-based social and emotional learning (SEL) program designed to be implemented in schools by regular classroom teachers. In: Handbook of mindfulness in education — integrating theory into practice. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2016. p. 313–34.
Saunders RP, Evans MH, Joshi P. Developing a process-evaluation plan for assessing health promotion program implementation: a how-to guide. Health Promot Pract. 2005;6:134–47.
RE-AIM workgroup. RE-AIM [Internet]. RE-AIM Improving public health relevance and population health impact. Available from: http://www.re-aim.org/. Accessed 5 Apr 2022.
Toybox. Toybox study Questionnaires. Available from: http://www.toybox-study.eu/?q=en/node/124. Accessed 2 Apr 2022.
Määttä S, Vepsäläinen H, Lehto R, Erkkola M, Roos E, Ray C. Reproducibility of preschool personnel and Guardian reports on energy balance-related behaviors and their correlates in Finnish preschool children. Children. 2018;5:144.
Korkalo L, Vepsäläinen H, Ray C, Skaffari E, Lehto R, Hauta-Alus HH, et al. Parents’ reports of preschoolers’ diets: relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns. Nutrients. 2019;11:159.
Manios Y, Androutsos O, Katsarou C, Iotova V, Socha P, Geyer C, et al. Designing and implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood: the ToyBox-study. Obes Rev. 2014;15(Suppl 3):5–13.
Mouratidou T, Miguel ML, Androutsos O, Manios Y, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Cardon G, et al. Tools, harmonization and standardization procedures of the impact and outcome evaluation indices obtained during a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood: the ToyBox-study. Obes Rev. 2014;15(Suppl 3):53–60.
Nissinen K, Sillanpää H, Korkalo L, Roos E, Erkkola M. Annoskuvakirja Lasten Ruokamäärien Arvioinnin Avuksi (The Children’s Food Picture Book). Helsinki, Seinäjoki: Helsingin Yliopisto, Seinäjoen Ammattikorkeakoulu, Samfundet Folkhälsan; 2015. Available from: http://rty.fi/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/annoskuvakirja.pdf
Core R, team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing [internet]. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2020. Available from: https://www.R-project.org/
Tingley D, Yamamoto T, Hirose K, Keele L, Imai K. Mediation: R package for causal mediation analysis. J Stat Softw. 2014;59:1–38.
Lambrinou CP, van Stralen MM, Androutsos O, Cardon G, De Craemer M, Iotova V, et al. Mediators of the effectiveness of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on pre-schoolers’ snacking behaviour: the ToyBox-study. Public Health Nutr. 2019;22:157–63.
Agler R, De Boeck P. On the interpretation and use of mediation: multiple perspectives on mediation analysis. Front Psychol. 2017;8:1984.
Brug J, Tak NI, te Velde SJ, Bere E, de Bourdeaudhuij I. Taste preferences, liking and other factors related to fruit and vegetable intakes among schoolchildren: results from observational studies. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(Suppl 1):S7–14.
Appleton KM, Hemingway A, Saulais L, Dinnella C, Monteleone E, Depezay L, et al. Increasing vegetable intakes: rationale and systematic review of published interventions. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55:869–96.
Koppelaar E, Knibbe JJ, Miedema HS, Burdorf A. Determinants of implementation of primary preventive interventions on patient handling in healthcare: a systematic review. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:353–60.
Nilsen P, Bernhardsson S. Context matters in implementation science: a scoping review of determinant frameworks that describe contextual determinants for implementation outcomes. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019;19:189.
Meshkovska B, Scheller DA, Wendt J, Jilani H, Scheidmeir M, Stratil JM, et al. Barriers and facilitators to implementation of direct fruit and vegetables provision interventions in kindergartens and schools: a qualitative systematic review applying the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2022;19:11.
von Philipsborn P, Stratil JM, Burns J, Busert LK, Pfadenhauer LM, Polus S, et al. Environmental interventions to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and their effects on health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;6:CD012292.
Hartley L, Igbinedion E, Holmes J, Flowers N, Thorogood M, Clarke A, et al. Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2013:CD009874.
Aune D, Giovannucci E, Boffetta P, Fadnes LT, Keum N, Norat T, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality-a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46:1029–56.
Glasgow R. Evaluation of theory-based interventions. In: Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. 3rd ed. San Franscisco: Jossey-Bass; 2002. p. 530–44.
Grant A, Treweek S, Dreischulte T, Foy R, Guthrie B. Process evaluations for cluster-randomised trials of complex interventions: a proposed framework for design and reporting. Trials. 2013;12(14):15.
Lehto E, Ray C, Vepsäläinen H, Korkalo L, Lehto R, Kaukonen R, et al. Increased health and wellbeing in preschools (DAGIS) study-differences in Children’s energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) and in long-term stress by parental educational level. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15:2313.