GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators. Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:13–27.
Després J-P. Body fat distribution and risk of cardiovascular disease: an update. Circulation. 2012;126:1301–13.
Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL. Indices of relative weight and obesity. J Chronic Dis. 1972;25:329–43.
Urek R, Crncević-Urek M, Cubrilo-Turek M. Obesity--a global public health problem. Acta Medica Croat Cas Hravatske Akad Med Znan. 2007;61:161–4.
Ross R, Neeland IJ, Yamashita S, Shai I, Seidell J, Magni P, et al. Waist circumference as a vital sign in clinical practice: a consensus statement from the IAS and ICCR working group on visceral obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2020;16:177–89.
Huxley R, Mendis S, Zheleznyakov E, Reddy S, Chan J. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk--a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:16–22.
Bigaard J, Frederiksen K, Tjønneland A, Thomsen BL, Overvad K, Heitmann BL, et al. Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women. Int J Obes. 2005;29:778–84.
Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:379–84.
Zhou B, Carrillo-Larco RM, Danaei G, Riley LM, Paciorek CJ, Stevens GA, et al. Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants. Lancet. 2021;398:957–80.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet Lond Engl. 2012;380:2224–60.
WHO. A global brief on hypertension : silent killer, global public health crisis: World Health Day; 2013. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/a-global-brief-on-hypertension-silent-killer-global-public-health-crisis-world-health-day-2013
Mohsen IM. Hypertension in developing countries: a major challenge for the future. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2018;20:38.
Neupane D, McLachlan CS, Sharma R, Gyawali B, Khanal V, Mishra SR, et al. Prevalence of hypertension in member countries of south Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): systematic review and meta-analysis. Med (Baltimore) 2014;93(13):e74. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000074.
Singh RB, Suh IL, Singh VP, Chaithiraphan S, Laothavorn P, Sy RG, et al. Hypertension and stroke in Asia: prevalence, control and strategies in developing countries for prevention. J Hum Hypertens. 2000;14:749–63.
Jordan J, Yumuk V, Schlaich M, Nilsson PM, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Grassi G, et al. Joint statement of the European Association for the Study of obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: obesity and difficult to treat arterial hypertension. J Hypertens. 2012;30:1047–55.
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, Flint AJ, Hannan L, MacInnis RJ, et al. Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2211–9.
Prospective Studies Collaboration. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet. 2009;373:1083–96.
Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365:217–23.
Kotchen TA. Obesity-related hypertension: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:1170–8.
Boutayeb A. The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:191–9.
Lopez AD, Mathers CD. Measuring the global burden of disease and epidemiological transitions: 2002–2030. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:481–99.
Ali N, Mahmood S, Manirujjaman M, Perveen R, Al Nahid A, Ahmed S, et al. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2017;18:58.
Chowdhury MAB, Uddin M, Haque M, Ibrahimou B. Hypertension among adults in Bangladesh: evidence from a national cross-sectional survey. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2016;16:1–10.
Islam S, Rahman S, Haque T, Sumon AH, Ahmed AM, Ali N. Prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and its association with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi adults. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2020;3:e00116.
Moni MA, Rahman MA, Haque MA, Islam MS, Ahmed K. Blood pressure in relation to selected anthropometric measurements in senior citizens. Mymensingh Med J MMJ. 2010;19:254–8.
Siddiquee T, Bhowmik B, Da Vale Moreira NC, Mujumder A, Mahtab H, Khan AKA, et al. Prevalence of obesity in a rural Asian Indian (Bangladeshi) population and its determinants. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:860.
Ali N, Mahmud F, Akter S, Islam S, Sumon AHa, Barman D, et al. The prevalence of general obesity, abdominal obesity and hypertension and its related risk factors among young adult students in Bangladesh. J Clin Hypertens. 2022;1–11. https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.14560.
Ali N, Miah R, Hasan M, Barman Z, Mou AD, Hafsa JM, et al. Association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi adults. Sci Rep. 2020;10:7841.
Ali N, Mahmood S, Islam F, Rahman S, Haque T, Islam S, et al. Relationship between serum uric acid and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi adults. Sci Rep. 2019;9:9061.
Ali N, Rahman S, Islam S, Haque T, Molla NH, Sumon AH, et al. The relationship between serum uric acid and lipid profile in Bangladeshi adults. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019;19:42.
Ali N, Perveen R, Rahman S, Mahmood S, Rahman S, Islam S, et al. Prevalence of hyperuricemia and the relationship between serum uric acid and obesity: a study on Bangladeshi adults. Plos One. 2018;13:e0206850.
Mou AD, Barman Z, Hasan M, Miah R, Hafsa JM, Das Trisha A, et al. Prevalence of preeclampsia and the associated risk factors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. Sci Rep. 2021;11:21339.
Kathak RR, Sumon AH, Molla NH, Hasan M, Miah R, Tuba HR, et al. The association between elevated lipid profile and liver enzymes: a study on Bangladeshi adults. Sci Rep. 2022;12:1711.
Haque T, Rahman S, Islam S, Molla NH, Ali N. Assessment of the relationship between serum uric acid and glucose levels in healthy, prediabetic and diabetic individuals. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2019;11:49.
Ali N, Sumon AH, Fariha KA, Asaduzzaman M, Kathak RR, Molla NH, et al. Assessment of the relationship of serum liver enzymes activity with general and abdominal obesity in an urban Bangladeshi population. Sci Rep. 2021;11:6640.
WHO. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet Lond Engl. 2004;363:157–63.
WHO. International association for the study of obesity, international obesity taskforce. Asia-Pac Perspect Redefining Obes Its Treat. 2000:15–21.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, et al. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.
Rahman S, Islam S, Haque T, Kathak RR, Ali N. Association between serum liver enzymes and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi adults. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2020;20:128.
Kaur P, Rao SR, Radhakrishnan E, Rajasekar D, Gupte MD. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors for hypertension in a rural population in South India. Int J Public Health. 2012;57:87–94.
Zhang X, Sun Z, Zhang X, Zheng L, Liu S, Xu C, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of overweight and obesity in a Chinese rural population. Obesity. 2008;16:168–71.
Sternfeld B, Wang H, Quesenberry CP Jr, Abrams B, Everson-Rose SA, Greendale GA, et al. Physical activity and changes in weight and waist circumference in midlife women: findings from the study of Women’s health across the nation. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160:912–22.
WHO. Preventing and managing the global epidemic, report of a WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva: World Health Organ; 1998.
Thapa R, Dahl C, Aung WP, Bjertness E. Urban–rural differences in overweight and obesity among 25–64 years old Myanmar residents: a cross-sectional, nationwide survey. BMJ Open. 2021;11:e042561.
Ahirwar R, Mondal PR. Prevalence of obesity in India: a systematic review. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2019;13:318–21.
Balarajan Y, Villamor E. Nationally representative surveys show recent increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh, Nepal, and India. J Nutr. 2009;139:2139–44.
Islam F, Kathak RR, Sumon AH, Molla NH. Prevalence and associated risk factors of general and abdominal obesity in rural and urban women in Bangladesh. Plos One. 2020;15:e0233754.
Jayawardena R, Byrne NM, Soares MJ, Katulanda P, Hills AP. Prevalence, trends and associated socio-economic factors of obesity in South Asia. Obes Facts. 2013;6:405–14.
Abramson BL, Melvin RG. Cardiovascular risk in women: focus on hypertension. Can J Cardiol. 2014;30:553–9.
Doumas M, Papademetriou V, Faselis C, Kokkinos P. Gender differences in hypertension: myths and reality. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2013;15:321–30.
Gahagan J, Gray K, Whynacht A. Sex and gender matter in health research: addressing health inequities in health research reporting. Int J Equity Health. 2015;14:1–4.
Moniruzzaman TA, Rahman S, Acharyya A, Islam FA, Ahmed MM, et al. Prevalence of hypertension among the Bangladeshi adult population: a meta-analysis. In: Regional Health Forum; 2013. p. 15.
Chow CK, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Islam S, Gupta R, Avezum A, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in rural and urban communities in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. JAMA. 2013;310:959–68.
Gupta R, Deedwania PC, Achari V, Bhansali A, Gupta BK, Gupta A, et al. Normotension, prehypertension, and hypertension in urban middle-class subjects in India: prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26:83–94.
Kowal P, Arokiasamy P, Lopez Ridaura R, Yong J, Minicuci N, Chatterji S. Hypertension in developing countries. Lancet Lond Engl. 2012;380:1471.
Dhingra R, Vasan RS. Age as a risk factor. Med Clin North Am. 2012;96:87–91.
BBS. (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). Household Income and Expenditure Survey. In: Statistics Division. Dhaka: Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh; 2010.
Haseen F. Change in food and energy consumption among the ultra poor: is the poverty reduction programme making a difference? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(Suppl 1):58–64.