WHO. Regional Office for Europe: Tobacco control database. 2008, WHO
Warren CW, Jones NR, Eriksen MP, Asma S: Patterns of global tobacco use in young people and implications for future chronic disease burden in adults. The Lancet. 2006, 367: 749-753. 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68192-0.
Bosetti C, Levi F, Lucchini F, Negri E, Vecchia CL: Lung cancer mortality in European women: recent trends and perspectives. Annals of Oncology. 2005, 16: 1597-1604. 10.1093/annonc/mdi313.
Hublet A, De Bacquer D, Valimaa R, Godeau E, Schmid H, Rahav G, Maes L: Smoking trends among adolescents from 1990 to 2002 in ten European countries and Canada. BMC Public Health. 2006, 6: 280-10.1186/1471-2458-6-280.
Zatonski WA, Manczuk M, Powles J, Negri E: Convergence of male and female lung cancer mortality at younger ages in the European Union and Russia. The European Journal of Public Health. 2007, 17: 450-454. 10.1093/eurpub/ckl276.
Carvajal SC, Wiatrek DE, Evans RI, Knee CR, Nash SG: Psychosocial determinants of the onset and escalation of smoking: cross-sectional and prospective findings in multiethnic middle school samples. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2000, 27: 255-265. 10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00124-5.
de Vries H, Engels R, Kremers S, Wetzels J, Mudde A: Parents' and friends' smoking status as predictors of smoking onset: findings from six European countries. Health Education Research. 2003, 18: 627-636. 10.1093/her/cyg032.
Forrester K, Biglan A, Severson HH, Smolkowski K: Predictors of smoking onset over two years. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2007, 9: 1259-1267. 10.1080/14622200701705357.
Kokkevi A, Richardson C, Florescu S, Kuzman M, Stergar E: Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: A cross-national study in six European countries. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2007, 86: 67-74. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.05.018.
Kokkevi AE, Arapaki AA, Richardson C, Florescu S, Kuzman M, Stergar E: Further investigation of psychological and environmental correlates of substance use in adolescence in six European countries. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2007, 88: 308-312. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.10.004.
Nichols TR, Birnbaum AS, Birnel S, Botvin GJ: Perceived smoking environment and smoking initiation among multi-ethnic urban girls. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2006, 38: 369-375. 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.04.016.
Wilkinson A, Schabath M, Prokhorov A, Spitz M: Age-related differences in factors associated with smoking initiation. Cancer Causes and Control. 2007, 18: 635-644. 10.1007/s10552-007-9008-6.
Gritz ER, Prokhorov AV, Hudmon KS, Jones MM, Rosenblum C, Chung-Chi C, Chamberlain RM, Taylor WC, Johnston D, de Moor C: Predictors of susceptibility to smoking and ever smoking: A longitudinal study in a triethnic sample of adolescents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2003, 5: 493-10.1080/1462220031000118568.
Dragano N, Bobak M, Wege N, Peasey A, Verde P, Kubinova R, Weyers S, Moebus S, Mohlenkamp S, Stang A, Erbel R, Jockel KH, Siegrist J, Pikhart H: Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany. BMC Public Health. 2007, 7: 255-10.1186/1471-2458-7-255.
Reijneveld SA: The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking. Int J Epidemiol. 1998, 27: 33-40. 10.1093/ije/27.1.33.
Willemsen MC, Hoogenveen RT, Lucht van der F: New smokers and quitters: Transitions in smoking status in a national population. The European Journal of Public Health. 2002, 12: 136-138. 10.1093/eurpub/12.2.136.
DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Weitzman M, Hipple BJ, Winickoff JP, for the Tobacco Consortium CfCHRotAAoP: Tobacco Promotion and the Initiation of Tobacco Use: Assessing the Evidence for Causality. Pediatrics. 2006, 117: e1237-1248. 10.1542/peds.2005-1817.
Barbeau EM, Leavy-Sperounis A, Balbach ED: Smoking, social class, and gender: what can public health learn from the tobacco industry about disparities in smoking?. Tob Control. 2004, 13: 115-120. 10.1136/tc.2003.006098.
Berlin I, Singleton EG, Pedarriosse A, Lancrenon S, Rames A, Aubin H, Niaura R: The Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale: factorial structure, gender effects and relationship with nicotine dependence and smoking cessation in French smokers. Addiction. 2003, 98: 1575-1583. 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00523.x.
Rowe K, Macleod Clark J: Why nurses smoke: a review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2000, 37: 173-181. 10.1016/S0020-7489(99)00060-7.
Honjo K, Siegel M: Perceived importance of being thin and smoking initiation among young girls. Tobacco Control. 2003, 12: 289-295. 10.1136/tc.12.3.289.
French SA, Perry CL, Leon GR, Fulkerson JA: Weight concerns, dieting behavior, and smoking initiation among adolescents: a prospective study. American Journal of Public Health. 1994, 84: 1818-1820. 10.2105/AJPH.84.11.1818.
Kaufman AR, Augustson EM: Predictors of regular cigarette smoking among adolescent females: Does body image matter?. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008, 10: 1301-1309. 10.1080/14622200802238985.
Weiss JW, Merrill V, Gritz ER: Ethnic variation in the association between weight concern and adolescent smoking. Addictive Behaviors. 2007, 32: 2311-2316. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.01.020.
Simonato L, Agudo A, Ahrens W, Benhamou E, Benhamou S, Bofetta P, Brennan P, Darby SC, Forastiere F, et al: Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in Europe: An update of risk estimates and an assessment of inter-country heterogeneity. International Journal of Cancer. 2001, 91: 876-887. 10.1002/1097-0215(200102)9999:9999<::AID-IJC1139>3.0.CO;2-7.
Peto R, Alan Lopez, Jillian Boreham, Thun M: Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950-2000 (European Union - 25 countries). 2006, [http://www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/~tobacco/SMK_All_PAGES.pdf]
Bray F, Tyczynski JE, Parkin DM: Going up or coming down? The changing phases of the lung cancer epidemic from 1967 to 1999 in the 15 European Union countries. European Journal of Cancer. 2004, 40: 96-125. 10.1016/j.ejca.2003.08.005.
Levi F, Bosetti C, Fernandez F, Hill C, Lucchini F, Negri E, La Vecchia C: Trends in lung cancer among young European women: The rising epidemic in France and Spain. International Journal of Cancer. 2007, 121: 462-465. 10.1002/ijc.22694.
Joossens L, Raw M: The Tobacco Control Scale: a new scale to measure country activity. Tobacco Control. 2006, 15: 247-253. 10.1136/tc.2005.015347.
Heck JE, Stucker I, Allwright S, Gritz ER, Haglund M, Healton CG, Kralikova E, Sanchez Del Mazo S, Tamang E, Dresler CM, Hashibe M: Home and workplace smoking bans in Italy, Ireland, Sweden, France, and the Czech Republic. Eur Respir J.
Kelishadi R, Mokhtari M, Tavasoli A, Khosravi A, hangar-Nazari I, Sabet B, Kazemi A, Amini A: Determinants of tobacco use among youths in Isfahan, Iran. International Journal of Public Health. 2007, 52: 173-179. 10.1007/s00038-007-6017-x.
Nuno-Gutierrez BL, Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Madrigal-De Leon EA, Tapia-Curiel A: Factores asociados a los patrones de consumo de tabaco en adolescentes escolares. (Spanish). Revista Medica del IMSS. 2008, 46: 19-26.
Rudatsikira E, Muula A, Siziya S, Mataya R: Correlates of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Thailand: findings from the Thai global youth tobacco survey 2005. International Archives of Medicine. 2008, 1: 8-10.1186/1755-7682-1-8.
Osler M, McGue M, Lund R, Christensen K: Marital Status and Twins' Health and Behavior: An Analysis of Middle-Aged Danish Twins. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2008, 70: 482-487. 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31816f857b.
Chaix B, Guilbert P, Chauvin P: A multilevel analysis of tobacco use and tobacco consumption levels in France. Are there any combination risk groups?. The European Journal of Public Health. 2004, 14: 186-190. 10.1093/eurpub/14.2.186.
Chuang YC, Cubbin C, Ahn D, Winkleby MA: Effects of neighbourhood socioeconomic status and convenience store concentration on individual level smoking. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2005, 59: 568-573. 10.1136/jech.2004.029041.
Mathur C, Stigler MH, Perry CL, Arora M, Reddy KS: Differences in prevalence of tobacco use among Indian urban youth: The role of socioeconomic status. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008, 10: 109-116. 10.1080/14622200701767779.
Najman JM, Toloo G, Siskind V: Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006, 84: 976-984. 10.2471/BLT.05.028928.
Watt HC, Carson C, Lawlor DA, Patel R, Ebrahim S: Influence of Life Course Socioeconomic Position on Older Women's Health Behaviors: Findings From the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Am J Public Health. 2009, 99: 320-327. 10.2105/AJPH.2007.129288.
Unger JB, Sun P, Johnson CA: Socioeconomic correlates of smoking among an ethnically diverse sample of 8th grade adolescents in Southern California. Preventive Medicine. 2007, 44: 323-327. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.12.018.
Moussa KM, Ostergren PO, Grahn M, Kunst AE, Eek F, Essen B: Socioeconomic differences in smoking trends among pregnant women at first antenatal visit in Sweden 1982-2001: Increasing importance of educational level for the total burden of smoking. Tob Control. 2008, tc.2008.026336
Huisman M, Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP: Inequalities in the prevalence of smoking in the European Union: comparing education and income. Prev Med. 2005, 40: 756-764. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.022.
Huisman M, Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP: Educational inequalities in smoking among men and women aged 16 years and older in 11 European countries. Tob Control. 2005, 14: 106-113. 10.1136/tc.2004.008573.
Schaap MM, Kunst AE: Monitoring of socio-economic inequalities in smoking: learning from the experiences of recent scientific studies. Public Health. 2009, 123: 103-109. 10.1016/j.puhe.2008.10.015.
Schaap MM, van Agt HM, Kunst AE: Identification of socioeconomic groups at increased risk for smoking in European countries: looking beyond educational level. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008, 10: 359-369. 10.1080/14622200701825098.
Giskes K, Kunst AE, Benach J, Borrell C, Costa G, Dahl E, Dalstra JA, Federico B, Helmert U, Judge K, Lahelma E, Moussa K, Ostergren PO, Platt S, Prattala R, Rasmussen NK, Mackenbach JP: Trends in smoking behaviour between 1985 and 2000 in nine European countries by education. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005, 59: 395-401. 10.1136/jech.2004.025684.
Cavelaars AE, Kunst AE, Geurts JJ, Crialesi R, Grotvedt L, Helmert U, Lahelma E, Lundberg O, Matheson J, Mielck A, Rasmussen NK, Regidor E, do Rosario-Giraldes M, Spuhler T, Mackenbach JP: Educational differences in smoking: international comparison. BMJ. 2000, 320: 1102-1107. 10.1136/bmj.320.7242.1102.
Spijkerman R, Eijnden van den RJJM, Engels RCME: Self-comparison processes, prototypes, and smoking onset among early adolescents. Preventive Medicine. 2005, 40: 785-794. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.025.
Watson NA, Clarkson JP, Donovan RJ, Giles-Corti B: Filthy or fashionable? Young people's perceptions of smoking in the media. Health Education Research. 2003, 18: 554-567. 10.1093/her/cyf039.
Prokhorov AV, Winickoff JP, Ahluwalia JS, Ossip-Klein D, Tanski S, Lando HA, Moolchan ET, Muramoto M, Klein JD, Weitzman M, Ford KH, for the Tobacco Consortium AAoPCfCHR: Youth Tobacco Use: A Global Perspective for Child Health Care Clinicians. Pediatrics. 2006, 118: e890-e903. 10.1542/peds.2005-0810.
Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K: Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence. Lung Cancer. 2004, 45: S3-S9. 10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.07.998.
Schulze A, Mons U: The evolution of educational inequalities in smoking: a changing relationship and a cross-over effect among German birth cohorts of 1921-70. Addiction. 2006, 101: 1051-1056. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01458.x.
Lavecchia C, Decarli A, Pagano R: Patterns of Smoking Initiation in Italian Males and Females from 1955 to 1985. Preventive Medicine. 1995, 24: 293-296. 10.1006/pmed.1995.1047.
Kessler RC, Angermeyer M, Anthony JC, De Graff R, Demyttenaere K, Gasquet I, et al: Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007, 6: 168-176.
Covey LS, Tam D: Depressive mood, the single-parent home, and adolescent cigarette smoking. American Journal of Public Health. 1990, 80: 1330-1333. 10.2105/AJPH.80.11.1330.
Escobedo LG, Reddy M, Giovino GA: The relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in US adolescents. Addiction. 1998, 93: 433-10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.93343311.x.
Massak A, Graham K: Is the smoking-depression relationship confounded by alcohol consumption? An analysis by gender. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2008, 10: 1231-1243. 10.1080/14622200802163449.
Breslau N, Peterson EL, Schultz LR, Chilcoat HD, Andreski P: Major Depression and Stages of Smoking: A Longitudinal Investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1998, 55: 161-166. 10.1001/archpsyc.55.2.161.
Pasco JA, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, Ng F, Henry MJ, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA, Berk M: Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder: population-based study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2008, 193: 322-326. 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.046706.
Steuber TL, Danner F: Adolescent smoking and depression: Which comes first?. Addictive Behaviors. 2006, 31: 133-136. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.04.010.
Breslau N, Novak SP, Kessler RC: Psychiatric disorders and stages of smoking. Biological Psychiatry. 2004, 55: 69-76. 10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00317-2.
Siqueira L, Diab M, Bodian C, Rolnitzky L: Adolescents becoming smokers: the roles of stress and coping methods. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2000, 27: 399-408. 10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00167-1.
Kassel Jd, Stroud LR, Paronis CA: Smoking, stress, and negative affect: correlation, causation, and context across stages of smoking. Psychological Bulletin. 2003, 129: 270-304. 10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.270.
Anda RF, Croft JB, Felitti VJ, Nordenberg D, Giles WH, Williamson DF, Giovino GA: Adverse Childhood Experiences and Smoking During Adolescence and Adulthood. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1999, 282: 1652-1658. 10.1001/jama.282.17.1652.
Lloyd DA, Taylor J: Lifetime cumulative adversity, mental health and the risk of becoming a smoker. Health. 2006, 10: 95-112. 10.1177/1363459306058990.
Schaap MM, Kunst AE, Leinsalu M, Regidor E, Ekholm O, Dzurova D, Helmert U, Klumbiene J, Santana P, Mackenbach JP: Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries. Tobacco Control. 2008, 17: 248-255. 10.1136/tc.2007.024265.
Mullally BJ, Greiner BA, Allwright S, Paul G, Perry IJ: The effect of the Irish smoke-free workplace legislation on smoking among bar workers. Eur J Public Health. 2009, 19: 206-211. 10.1093/eurpub/ckp008.
Fowkes FJI, Marlene CW, Stewart F, Gerald Fowkes, Amanda Amos, Price JF: Scottish smoke-free legislation and trends in smoking cessation. Addiction. 2008, 103: 1888-1895. 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02350.x.