Chooi YC, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism. 2019;92:6–10.
Sowers JR. Obesity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Med. 2003;115:37–41.
Hannon TS, Rao G, Arslanian SA. Childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics. 2005;116:473–80.
De Pergola G, Silvestris F. Obesity as a major risk factor for Cancer. J Obes. 2013;2013:e291546.
Shiri R, Lallukka T, Karppinen J, Viikari-Juntura E. Obesity as a risk factor for sciatica: a Meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179:929–37.
Zhang T-T, Liu Z, Liu Y-L, Zhao J-J, Liu D-W, Tian Q-B. Obesity as a risk factor for low Back pain. Clin Spine Surg. 2018;31:22–7.
Grazio S, Balen D. Obesity: risk factor and predictor of osteoarthritis. Lijec Vjesn. 2009;131:22–6.
Reilly JJ, Methven E, McDowell ZC, Hacking B, Alexander D, Stewart L, et al. Health consequences of obesity. ArchDisChild. 2003;88:748–52.
Collaborators G 2015 O. Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:13–27.
Vidra N, Bijlsma MJ, Trias-Llimos S, Janssen F. Past trends in obesity-attributable mortality in eight European countries: an application of age-period-cohort analysis. Int J Public Health. 2018;63:683–92.
Charafeddine R, Van Oyen H, Demarest S. Trends in social inequalities in obesity: Belgium, 1997 to 2004. PrevMed. 2008;48:54–8.
Organization WH, others. European health report 2015: targets and beyond-reaching new frontiers in evidence. Copenhagen: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2015.
Wang Y, Beydoun MA, Liang L, Caballero B, Kumanyika SK. Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic. Obesity. 2008;16:2323–30.
Wang YC, McPherson K, Marsh T, Gortmaker SL, Brown M. Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet. 2011;378:815–25.
Sassi F, Devaux M, Cecchini M, Rusticelli E. The obesity epidemic: analysis of past and projected future trends in selected OECD countries. Paris: OECD; 2009.
Schneider H, Dietrich ES, Venetz WP. Trends and stabilization up to 2022 in overweight and obesity in Switzerland, comparison to France, UK, US and Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:460–72.
Thomas DM, Weedermann M, Fuemmeler BF, Martin CK, Dhurandhar NV, Bredlau C, et al. Dynamic model predicting overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity prevalence trends. Obesity. 2014;22:590–7.
Pineda E, Sanchez-Romero LM, Brown M, Jaccard A, Jewell J, Galea G, et al. Forecasting future trends in obesity across Europe: the value of improving surveillance. Obes Facts. 2018;11:360–71.
Keaver L, Webber L, Dee A, Shiely F, Marsh T, Balanda K, et al. Application of the UK foresight obesity model in Ireland: the health and economic consequences of projected obesity trends in Ireland. PLoS One. 2013;8:e79827.
McPherson K, Marsh T, Brown M, Britain G. Tackling obesities: future choices: Modelling future trends in obesity and the impact on health. UK: Government Office for Science; 2007.
Kelly T, Yang W, Chen C-S, Reynolds K, He J. Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes. 2008;32:1431–7.
Janssen F, Bardoutsos A, Vidra N. Obesity prevalence in the long-term future in 18 European countries and in the USA. Obes Facts. 2020;13:514–27.
Kanter R, Caballero B. Global gender disparities in obesity: a review. Adv Nutr. 2012;3:491–8.
Masters RK, Reither EN, Powers DA, Yang YC, Burger AE, Link BG. The impact of obesity on US mortality levels: the importance of age and cohort factors in population estimates. Am J Public Health. 2013;103:1895–901.
Reither EN, Olshansky SJ, Yang Y. New forecasting methodology indicates more disease and earlier mortality ahead for today’s younger Americans. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011;30:1562–8.
Chen Y, Dong G, Lin K, Lee Y. Gender difference of childhood overweight and obesity in predicting the risk of incident asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2013;14:222–31.
Kautzky-Willer A, Harreiter J, Pacini G. Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Rev. 2016;37:278–316.
Reither EN, Hauser RM, Yang Y. Do birth cohorts matter? Age-period-cohort analyses of the obesity epidemic in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:1439–48.
Slade T, Chapman C, Swift W, Keyes K, Tonks Z, Teesson M. Birth cohort trends in the global epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol-related harms in men and women: systematic review and metaregression. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e011827.
Trzesniewski KH, Donnellan MB. Rethinking “generation me”: a study of cohort effects from 1976-2006. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2010;5:58–75.
Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:370–9.
Lien N, Henriksen HB, Nymoen LL, Wind M, Klepp K-I. Availability of data assessing the prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among European adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13:1680–7.
Diouf I, Charles MA, Ducimetière P, Basdevant A, Eschwege E, Heude B. Evolution of obesity prevalence in France: an age-period-cohort analysis. Epidemiol Camb Mass. 2010;21:360.
Jiang T, Gilthorpe MS, Shiely F, Harrington JM, Perry IJ, Kelleher CC, et al. Age-period-cohort analysis for trends in body mass index in Ireland. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1–7.
Dobson A, Hockey R, Chan H-W, Mishra G. Flexible age-period-cohort modelling illustrated using obesity prevalence data. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2020;20:1–9.
Bell A, Jones K. The hierarchical age-period-cohort model: why does it find the results that it finds? Qual Quant. 2018;52:783–99.
Bell A. Age period cohort analysis: a review of what we should and shouldn’t do. Ann Hum Biol. 2020;47:208–17.
Demarest S, Van der Heyden J, Charafeddine R, Drieskens S, Gisle L, Tafforeau J. Methodological basics and evolution of the Belgian health interview survey 1997–2008. Arch Public Health. 2013;71:24.
Nguyen D, Hautekiet P, Berete F, Braekman E, Charafeddine R, Demarest S, et al. The Belgian health examination survey: objectives, design and methods. Arch Public Health. 2020;78:1–10.
Demarest S. Méthodologie. In: Van der Heyden J, Gisle L, Demarest S, Drieskens S, Hesse E, editors. Tafforeau J, editors. Bruxelles: ISP - Direction Opérationelle Santé Publique et Surveillance; 2010. p. 31–44.
Statistics UI for. International standard classification of education: ISCED 2011. Int Stand Classif EducISCED 2011. 2012.
Indicators DWP on S. The OECD list of social indicators. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; [Washington, DC: Sold; 1982.
WHO. Body mass index - BMI. https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi. Accessed 15 Dec 2021.
Donnay P. Demografische vooruitzichten 2017-2070 Bevolking en huishoudens; 2018.
Yang Y, Land KC. A mixed models approach to the age-period-cohort analysis of repeated cross-section surveys, with an application to data on trends in verbal test scores. Sociol Methodol. 2006;36:75–97.
Yang Y, Land KC. Age-period-cohort analysis of repeated cross-section surveys - fixed or random effects? Sociol Methods Res. 2008;36:297–326.
Bell A, Jones K. Another ‘futile quest’? A simulation study of Yang and Land’s hierarchical age-period-cohort model. Demogr Res. 2014;30:333–60.
Riebler A, Held L. The analysis of heterogeneous time trends in multivariate age–period–cohort models. Biostatistics. 2010;11:57–69.
Riebler A, Held L. Projecting the future burden of cancer: Bayesian age–period–cohort analysis with integrated nested Laplace approximations. Biom J. 2017;59:531–49.
Rue H, Martino S, Chopin N. Approximate Bayesian inference for latent Gaussian models by using integrated nested Laplace approximations. J R Stat Soc Ser B Stat Methodol. 2009;71:319–92.
Smith TR, Wakefield J. A review and comparison of age-period-cohort models for Cancer incidence. Stat Sci. 2016;31:591–610.
R Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2021.
Zore T, Palafox M, Reue K. Sex differences in obesity, lipid metabolism, and inflammation—a role for the sex chromosomes? Mol Metab. 2018;15:35–44.
Tramunt B, Smati S, Grandgeorge N, Lenfant F, Arnal J-F, Montagner A, et al. Sex differences in metabolic regulation and diabetes susceptibility. Diabetologia. 2020;63:453–61.
Svendsen MT, Bak CK, Sørensen K, Pelikan J, Riddersholm SJ, Skals RK, et al. Associations of health literacy with socioeconomic position, health risk behavior, and health status: a large national population-based survey among Danish adults. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1–12.
Jeffery RW, Baxter J, McGuire M, Linde J. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006;3:1–6.
Weihrauch-Blüher S, Kromeyer-Hauschild K, Graf C, Widhalm K, Korsten-Reck U, Jödicke B, et al. Current guidelines for obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence. Obes Facts. 2018;11:263–76.
Djojosoeparto SK, Kamphuis C, Vandevijvere S, Murrin C, Stanley I, Romaniuk P, et al. Strength of EU-level food environment policies and priority recommendations to create healthy food environments. Eur J Pub Health. 2022;32(3):504–11.
Heymsfield SB, Wadden TA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:254–66.
Styne DM, Arslanian SA, Connor EL, Farooqi IS, Murad MH, Silverstein JH, et al. Pediatric obesity—assessment, treatment, and prevention: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:709–57.
Ryan DH, Kahan S. Guideline recommendations for obesity management. Med Clin. 2018;102:49–63.
Løvhaug AL, Granheim SI, Djojosoeparto SK, Harrington JM, Kamphuis C, Poelman MP, et al. The potential of food environment policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in diets and to improve healthy diets among lower socioeconomic groups: an umbrella review. BMC Public Health. 2022;22:1–14.
Ampofo AG, Boateng EB. Beyond 2020: Modelling obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;167:108362.
Collaboration NRF, others. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants. Lancet. 2016;387:1377–96.
Haug N, Geyrhofer L, Londei A, Dervic E, Desvars-Larrive A, Loreto V, et al. Ranking the effectiveness of worldwide COVID-19 government interventions. Nat Hum Behav. 2020;4:1303–12.
Stockwell S, Trott M, Tully M, Shin J, Barnett Y, Butler L, et al. Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a systematic review. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2021;7:e000960.
Drieskens S, Berger N, Vandevijvere S, Gisle L, Braekman E, Charafeddine R, et al. Short-term impact of the COVID-19 confinement measures on health behaviours and weight gain among adults in Belgium. Arch Public Health. 2021;79:1–10.
Clemmensen C, Petersen MB, Sørensen TI. Will the COVID-19 pandemic worsen the obesity epidemic? Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2020;16:469–70.
Fosse E, Winship C. Analyzing age-period-cohort data: a review and critique. Annu Rev Sociol. 2019;45:467–92.
Drieskens S, Demarest S, Bel S, De Ridder K, Tafforeau J. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience. Arch Public Health. 2018;76:1–8.