Ginsburg O, Bray F, Coleman MP, Vanderpuye V, Eniu A, Kotha SR, et al. The global burden of women’s cancers: a grand challenge in global health. Lancet. 2017;389(10071):847–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31392-7.
Cohen PA, Jhingran A, Oaknin A, Denny L. Cervical cancer. Lancet. 2019 Jan 12; 393(10167):169–182, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32470-X.
Matenge TG, Mash B. Barriers to accessing cervical cancer screening among HIV positive women in Kgatleng district, Botswana: a qualitative study. PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0205425. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205425.
Rahimzadeh M, Pourhoseingholi MA, Kavehie B. Survival rates for breast cancer in Iranian patients: a meta-analysis. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevention: APJCP. 17(4):2223–7.
Bisi-Onyemaechi AI, Chikani UN, Nduagubam O. Reducing incidence of cervical cancer: knowledge and attitudes of caregivers in Nigerian city to human papilloma virus vaccination. Infect Agent Cancer. 2018;13(1):29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13027-018-0202-9.
Dolatkhah R, Somi HM, Jafarabadi MA, Hosseinalifam M, Sepahi S, Belalzadeh M, Nezamdoust M, Dastgiri S. Breast Cancer Survival and Incidence: 10 years Cancer Registry Data in the Northwest, Iran. Int. Journal of Breast Cancer 2020; Article ID 1963814, 6 pages.
Torre LA, Islami F, Siegel RL, Ward EM, Jemal A. Global Cancer in women: burden and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2017;26(4):444–57. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0858.
Jedy-Agba E, Joko WY, Liu B, Buziba NG, Borok M, Korir A, et al. Trends in cervical cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Br J Cancer. 2020;123(1):148–54. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0831-9.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2016). The United Nations Global Cervical Cancer Programme End cervical cancer: prevent, treat, care. The Joint Programmes is about catalysing country and global action. The United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases (UNIATF). November 2016. WHO/NMH/NMA/16.96 © World Health Organization 2016.
LaVigne AW, Triedman SA, Randall TC, Trimble EL, Viswanathan AN. Cervical cancer in low and middle income countries: addressing barriers to radiotherapy delivery. Gynecologic oncology reports. 2017;22:16–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2017.08.004.
Ifediora CO. Re-thinking breast and cervical cancer preventive campaigns in developing countries: the case for interventions at high schools. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):503. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6890-2.
Arbyn M, Weiderpass E, Bruni L, de Sanjosé S, Saraiya M, Jacques-Ferlay Ir, Bray F. Estimates of incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in 2018: A worldwide analysis. The Lancet Global Health;, 2020 8 (2): e191-e203, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30482-6.
Catarino R, Petignat P, Dongui G, Vassilakos P. Cervical cancer screening in developing countries at a crossroad: emerging technologies and policy choices. World journal of clinical oncology. 2015;6(6):281–90. https://doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v6.i6.281.
Ahmed HG, Bensumaidea SH, Alshammari FD, Alenazi F, ALmutlaq BA, Alturkstani MZ, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus subtypes 16 and 18 among Yemeni patients with cervical Cancer. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2017;18(6):1543–8.
Chan CK, Aimagambetova G, Ukybassova T, Kongrtay K, Azizan A. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer: Epidemiology, Screening, and Vaccination—Review of Current Perspectives. Hindawi Journal of Oncology 2019; Article ID 3257939, 11 pages, 1, 11, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3257939.
Thapa N, Maharjan M, Shrestha I, Maharjan N, Petrini MA, Na Z, et al. Prevalence and type-specific distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women in mid-western rural, Nepal- A population-based study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):338. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3175-9.
Ndejjo R, Mukama T, Musabyimana A, Musoke D. Uptake of cervical Cancer screening and associated factors among women in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0149696. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149696.
Akokuwebe ME, Adekanbi DM. Corruption in the health sector and implications for service delivery in Oyo state public hospitals. Ilorin Journal of Sociology. 2017;9(1):200–17.
Olubodun T, Odukoya OO, Balogun MR. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer prevention, among women residing in an urban slum in Lagos, south west. Nigeria The Pan African medical journal. 2019;32:130. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.32.130.14432.
Akokuwebe ME, Clifford OC. Socioeconomic determinants of knowledge of kidney disease among residents in Nigerian communities in Lagos state. Nigeria Oman Medical Journal. 2019;34(5):444–55. https://doi.org/10.5001/omj.2019.81.
Akokuwebe ME, Clifford Odimegwu C, Omololu F. Prevalence, risk-inducing lifestyle, and perceived susceptibility to kidney diseases by gender among Nigerians residents in South Western Nigeria. Afr Health Sci. 2020;20(2):860–70. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v20i2.40.
Vhuromu EN, Goon DT, Maputle MS, Lebese RT, Okafor BU. Utilization of cervical Cancer screening services among women in Vhembe District, South Africa: a cross-sectional study. The Open Public Health Journal. 2018;11(1):451–63. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874944501811010451.
Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(2):87–108. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21262.
Lyimo FS, Beran TN. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: three public policy implications. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):22. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-22.
Abotchie PN, Shokar NK. Cervical cancer screening among college students in Ghana: knowledge and health beliefs. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009;19(3):412–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181a1d6de.
Romero-Estudillo E, González-Jiménez E, Mesa-Franco MC, García-García I. Gender-based differences in the high-risk sexual behaviours of young people aged 15-29 in Melilla (Spain): a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):745. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-745.
Chidyaonga-Maseko F, Chirwa ML, Muula AS. Underutilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low and middle income countries: a review of contributing factors. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;21:231. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.21.231.6350.
Simms KT, Steinberg J, Caruana M, Smith MA, Lew JB, Soerjomataram I, et al. Impact of scaled up human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical screening and the potential for global elimination of cervical cancer in 181 countries, 2020-99: a modelling study. Lancet Oncol. 2019;20(3):394–407. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30836-2.
HPV Center WHO/ICO. HPV Centre WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers in South Africa. Summary Report 2010. Accessed on October 14th, 2020 from https//www.who.in t/hpvcentre.
Hoque ME, Ghuman S, Coopoosmay R, Van Hal G. Cervical Cancer screening among university students in South Africa: a theory based. Study PLoS ONE. 2014;9(11):e111557. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111557.
Johnson LG, Armstrong A, Joyce CM, Teitelman AM, Buttenheim AM. Implementation strategies to improve cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0718-9.
Boyle P, Ngoma T, Sullivan R, Brawley O. Cancer in Africa: the way forward. Special Issue ecancer medical science. 13:953.
Arbyn M, Weiderpass E, Bruni L, de Sanjose S, Saraiya M, Ferlay Ir J, et al. Estimates of incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in 2018: a worldwide analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2019;8(2):E191–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30482-6.
Morounke SG, Ayorinde JB, Benedict AO, Adedayo FF, Adewale FO, et al. Epidemiology and incidence of common cancers in Nigeria. J Cancer Biol Res. 2017;5(3):1105.
Collins SI, Mazloomzadeh S, Winter H, Rollason TP, Blomfield P, Young LS, et al. Proximity of first intercourse to menarche and the risk of human papillomavirus infection: a longitudinal study. Int J Cancer 2005. 2005;114(3):498–500. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.20732.
Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Lancet. 2007;370(9590):890–907. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61416-0.
National Department of Health (NDOH). National guidelines for cervical cancer screening programme, NDOH, Pretoria, South Africa. National Department of Health. 2000:2000.
Foon S, Bloch B, Mabina M, Carpenter S, Cronje H, et al. Prevalence of pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer in South Africa- a multicentre study. S Afr Med J. 2002;92(2):148–56.
Hoque M, Hoque E, Kader SB. Evaluation of cervical Cancer screening program at a rural community of South Africa. East Afr J Public Health. 2008;5(2):111–6.
Hoque E, Hoque M. Knowledge of and attitude towards cervical cancer among female university students in South Africa. South Afr J Epidemiol Infect. 2009;24(1):21–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/10158782.2009.11441335.
Limpopo Department of Health (LDOH). Vote 7 2013/2014 Annual Report 2013/2014 financial year Department of Health 2013/2014. Limpopo Department of Health (LDOH), (2013/2014).
Arulogun OS, Maxwell OO. Perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening services among female nurses in university college hospital, Ibadan. Nigeria Pan Afr Med J. 2012;11(1):69.
Lim JN, Ojo AA. Barriers to utilisation of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017;26(1):1–9.
Chigbu CO, Aniebue UU. Experiences of women undergoing colposcopy in south eastern Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;119(2):182–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.06.005.
Ezechi OC, Gab-Okafor CV, Ostergren PO, Odberg PK. Willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):46. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-46.
Ndikom CM, Ofi BA. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study. Reprod Health. 2012;9(1):11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4755-9-11.
Rachet B, Ellis L, Maringe C, Chu T, Nur U, Quaresma M, et al. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in England after the NHS cancer plan. Br J Cancer. 2010;103(4):446–53. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6605752.
Bammeke OA, Ndikom CM. Awareness and attitudes of women towards cervical cancer screening in Oyo state. Nigeria Afr J Midwifery Women’s Health. 2014;8(2):91–7. https://doi.org/10.12968/ajmw.2014.8.2.91.
Statistics South Africa General Household Survey 2017. Statistics South Africa 2018.
World Bank. Overcoming poverty and inequality in South Africa: an assessment of drivers, constraints, and opportunities. 2018:148.
South Africa Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS), 2016. National Department of Health (NDoH), Statistics South Africa (Stats SA), South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), and ICF. 2017. South Africa Demographic and health survey 2016: key indicators. Pretoria, South Africa, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NDoH, Stats SA, SAMRC, and ICF.
Iqbal J, Ginsburg O, Rochon PA, Sun P, Narod SA. Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States. JAMA. 313(2):165–73.
Azubuike SO, Muirhead C, Hayes L, McNally R. Rising global burden of breast cancer: the case of sub-Saharan Africa (with emphasis on Nigeria) and implications for regional development: a review. World J Surg Onc. 2018;16(63):1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-018-1345-2.
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(6):394–424. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21492.
Stewart TS, Moodley J, Walter FM. Population risk factors for late-stage presentation of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018;53:81–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2018.01.014.
Lott BE, Trejo MJ, Baum C, McClelland DJ, Adsul P, Madhivanan P, et al. Interventions to increase uptake of cervical screening in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review using the integrated behavioral model. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):654. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08777-4.
Olorunfemi G, Ndlovu N, Masukume G, Chikandiwa A, Pisa PT, Singh E. Temporal trends in the epidemiology of cervical cancer in South Africa (1994–2012). Int J Cancer. 2018;143(9):2238–49. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31610.
Somdyala NIM, Parkin DM, Sithole N, Bradshaw D. Trends in cancer incidence in rural eastern Cape Province; South Africa, 1998-2012. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(5):E470–4. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29224.
Somdyala NIM, Bradshaw D, Dhansay MA, Stefan DC. Increasing cervical cancer incidence in rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from 1998 to 2012: A population-based cancer registry study. JCO Glob Oncol. 2020; 6: JGO. 19.00198.
Agarwal S, Ying J, Boucher KM, Agarwal JP. The association between socioeconomic factors and breast cancer-specific survival varies by race. PLoS One. 2017;12(12):Article e0187018.
Mwaka AD, Garimoi CO, Were EM, Roland M, Wabinga H, Lyratzopoulos G. Social, demographics and healthcare factors associated with stage at diagnosis of cervical cancer: cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in northern Uganda. BMJ Open. 2016;6(1):e007690. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007690.
Gizaw M, Addissie A, Getachew S, Ayele W, Mitiku I, Moelle U, et al. Cervical cancer patients’ presentation and survival in the only oncology referral hospital. Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study Infect Agent Cancer. 2017;12(1):61. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13027-017-0171-4.
Rudd P, Gorman D, Meja S, Mtonga P, Jere Y, Chidothe I, et al. Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: a prospective analysis of presentation, management, and outcomes. Malawi Med. 2017;29(2):124–9. https://doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v29i2.9.
Makuza JD, Nsanzimana S, Muhimpundu MA, Pace LE, Ntaganira J, Riedel DJ. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda. Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;22:26. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.22.26.7116.
Bouassa R-SM, Prazuck T, Lethu T, Jenabian M-A, Meye J-F, Belec L. Cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a preventable non-communicable disease. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther. 2017;15(6):613–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2017.1322902.
de Sanjose S, Diaz M, Castellsague X, Clifford G, Bruni L, Munoz N, et al. Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2017;7:453–453–9.
Isa Modibbo F, Dareng E, Bamisaye P, Jedy-Agba E, Adewole A, Oyeneyin L, et al. Qualitative study of barriers to cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. BMJ Open. 2016;6(1):e008533. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008533.
Huh WK, Ault KA, Chelmow D, Davey DD, Goulart RA, Garcia FA, et al. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance. Gynecol Oncol. 2015;136(2):178–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.12.022.
Akokuwebe ME, Okafor EE. Maternal health and the implications for sustainable transformation in Nigeria. Res Humanit Soc Sci. 2015;5(6):1–3.
Stefan DC. Cancer care in Africa: an overview of resources. J Glob Oncol. 2015;1(1):30–6. https://doi.org/10.1200/JGO.2015.000406.
Idowu A, Olowookere SA, Fagbemi AT, Ogunlaja OA. Determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A community-based study. J Cancer Epidemiology 2016; Article ID 6469240, 8 pages.
Kantelhardt EJ, Muluken G, Sefonias G, Wondimu A, Gebert HC, Unverzagt S, et al. A review on breast cancer care in Africa. Breast Care. 2015;10(6):364–70. https://doi.org/10.1159/000443156.
Tiruneh FN, Chuang K-Y, PAM N, Chuang Y-C. Individual-level and community-level determinants of cervical cancer screening among Kenyan women: a multilevel analysis of a nationwide survey. BMC Women’s Health. 2012;17:109.
Abdikarim IK, Atieno WMC, Habtu M. Prevlence and associated factors of cervical cancer screening among Somali women in an urban settlement in Kenya. J Comm Pub Health Nursing. 2017;3(01):159. https://doi.org/10.4172/2471-9846.1000159.
Ilevbare OE, Adegoke AA, Adelowo CM. Drivers of cervical cancer screening yptake in Ibadan Nigeria. Heliyon. 2020;6(3):e03505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03505.
Barrow A, Onikan A, Nzoputan CI, Ekholuenetale M. Prevalence and determinants of cervical cancer awareness among women of reproductive age: evidence from Benin and Zimbabwe population-based data. Appl Cancer Res. 2020;40(1):8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41241-020-00092-z.
Bruni L, Albero G, Serrano B, Mena M., Gomez D, Munoz J, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S. ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in Namibia. Summary Report 17 June 2019. [Accessed on July 27th, 2021].