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Table 3 Logistic Regression Showing Odds Estimates of Pap Smear Testing amongst Women aged 15–49 years by Population Characteristics in South Africa

From: Determinants and levels of cervical Cancer screening uptake among women of reproductive age in South Africa: evidence from South Africa Demographic and health survey data, 2016

Population Characteristic Ever had Pap Smear, N = 2098
Model I: Unadjusted AOR Model II: Adjusted AOR
OR p > Z [95% Conf. Interval] OR p > Z [95% Conf. Interval]
Age group
15–24 RC     RC    
25–34 5.61 0.000 4.3862 7.17 6.09 0.000 4.78 7.76
35–44 12.14 0.000 9.3698 15.73 13.62 0.000 10.57 17.55
45+ 11.95 0.000 9.2343 15.47 13.06 0.000 10.12 16.85
Population Group
 African/Black RC     RC    
 White 2.21 0.000 1.54 3.16 2.48 0.000 1.75 3.51
 Coloured 1.05 0.697 0.81 1.37 1.07 0.697 0.82 1.39
 Indian/Asian 1.56 0.107 0.91 2.68 1.63 0.107 0.95 2.80
Province
 Western Cape RC     RC    
 Eastern Cape 0.40 0.000 0.29 0.55 0.40 0.000 0.29 0.55
 Northern Cape 0.38 0.000 0.28 0.52 0.37 0.000 0.27 0.50
  Free State 0.33 0.000 0.24 0.47 0.33 0.000 0.23 0.45
 KwaZulu-Natal 0.31 0.000 0.22 0.43 0.30 0.000 0.22 0.42
 North West 0.46 0.000 0.33 0.64 0.46 0.000 0.33 0.64
 Gauteng 0.24 0.000 0.17 0.34 0.24 0.000 0.17 0.34
 Mpumalanga 0.41 0.000 0.29 0.57 0.41 0.000 0.29 0.57
 Limpopo 0.31 0.000 0.22 0.43 0.31 0.000 0.22 0.43
Geographical Type
 Urban RC     RC    
 Rural 0.73 0.000 0.62 0.86 0.72 0.000 0.61 0.86
Educational Attainment
 No education RC     RC    
 Primary 1.86 0.000 1.46 2.38 1.88 0.000 1.47 2.40
 Secondary 2.72 0.000 2.14 3.47 2.92 0.000 2.30 3.71
 Higher 4.45 0.000 3.20 6.19 5.61 0.000 4.09 7.70
Marital Status
 Never Married RC     RC    
 Married 1.31 0.000 1.13 1.53 1.33 0.000 1.14 1.54
 Divorced 2.53 0.000 1.60 4.02 2.58 0.000 1.63 4.09
 Widowed 0.90 0.342 0.73 1.12 0.89 0.342 0.72 1.09
Health insurance Cover
 No RC        
 Yes 1.37 0.003 1.11 1.69     
Wealth Index
 Poor RC     RC    
 Middle 1.12 0.192 0.94 1.33 1.14 0.192 0.96 1.35
 Rich 1.38 0.001 1.14 1.67 1.47 0.001 1.22 1.77
Occupation
 Not working RC        
 Professional/Formal 1.38 0.000 1.16 1.65     
 Non-professional/Informal 1.24 0.016 1.04 1.48     
Perceived health status
 Poor RC        
 Average 0.80 0.025 0.66 0.97 0.82 0.025 0.68 0.99
 Good 0.81 0.040 0.67 0.99 0.84 0.040 0.69 1.03
 Excellent 0.67 0.003 0.51 0.88 0.71 0.003 0.55 0.92
  1. Source: SADHS, 2016; RC – Reference category