South African Demographic Health Survey. Key Indicators Report 2016. Stats South Afr. 2017:1–76. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR337/FR337.pdf.
Bakal DR, Coelho LE, Luz PM, Clark JL, de Boni RB, Cardoso SW, et al. Obesity following ART initiation is common and influenced by both traditional and HIV−/ART-specific risk factors. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018;73(8):2177–85. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky145.
Guehi C, Badjé A, Gabillard D, Ouattara E, Koulé SO, Moh R, et al. High prevalence of being overweight and obese HIV-infected persons, before and after 24 months on early ART in the ANRS 12136 Temprano trial. AIDS Res Ther. 2016;13(1):12–24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12981-016-0094-y.
le Roux SM, Abrams EJ, Donald KA, Brittain K, Phillips TK, Nguyen KK, et al. Growth trajectories of breastfed HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children under conditions of universal maternal antiretroviral therapy: a prospective study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2019;3(4):234–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30007-0.
Madlala HP, Malaba TR, Newell ML, Myer L. Elevated body mass index during pregnancy and gestational weight gain in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Cape Town, South Africa: association with adverse birth outcomes. Tropical Med Int Health. 2020;25(6):702–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13387.
Kramer CK, Campbell S, Retnakaran R. Gestational diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetol. 2019;62(6):905–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4840-2.
Lee KK, Raja EA, Lee AJ, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S, Norman JE, et al. Maternal obesity during pregnancy associates with premature mortality and major cardiovascular events in later life. Hypertens. 2015;66(5):938–44. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05920.
Moussa HN, Alrais MA, Leon MG, Abbas EL, Sibai BM. Obesity epidemic: impact from preconception to postpartum. Future Sci OA. 2016;2(3):FSO137–48. https://doi.org/10.4155/fsoa-2016-0035.
Howell KR, Powell TL. Effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal development. Reprod. 2017;153(3):R97–108.
Gaillard R. Maternal obesity during pregnancy and cardiovascular development and disease in the offspring. Eur J Epidemiol. 2015;30(11):1141–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-015-0085-7.
Marchi J, Berg M, Dencker A, Olander EK, Begley C. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews. Obes Rev. 2015;16(8):621–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12288.
Steyn NP, Mchiza ZJ. Obesity and the nutrition transition in sub-Saharan Africa. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014;1311(1):88–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12433.
World Health Organisation. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert. Geneva: 2003. WHO Tech Rep Series no 916. ISSN 0512-3054. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_916.pdf.
Kroll F, Swart EC, Annan RA, Thow AM, Neves D, Apprey C, et al. Mapping obesogenic food environments in South Africa and Ghana: correlations and contradictions. Sustain. 2019;11(14):3924–55. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143924.
Labadarios D, Steyn NP, Nel J. How diverse is the diet of adult south Africans? Nutr J. 2011;10(1):33–44. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-33.
Mchiza ZJ, Steyn NP, Hill J, Kruger A, Schönfeldt H, Nel J, et al. A review of dietary surveys in the adult south African population from 2000 to 2015. Nutr. 2015;7(June):8227–50.
Ronquest-Ross L-C, Vink N, Sigge GO. Food consumption changes in South Africa since 1994. S Afr J Sci. 2015;111(9/10):1–12.
Kraschnewski JL, Chuang CH. “Eating for two”: excessive gestational weight gain and the need to change social norms. Womens Health Issues. 2014;24(3):e257–e9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2014.03.004.
Audain K, Kassier S, Veldman F. Adolescent food frequency and socio-economic status in a private urban and peri-urban school in Hilton, KwaZulu-Natal. South Afr J Clin Nutr. 2014;27(4):201–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/16070658.2014.11734510.
Sheehy T, Kolahdooz F, Mtshali TL, Khamis T, Sharma S. Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use among rural south Africans in KwaZulu-Natal. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014;27(5):443–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12166.
Myer L, Stein DJ, Grimsrud A, Seedat S, Williams DR. Social determinants of psychological distress in a nationally-representative sample of south African adults. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(8):1828–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.025.
Santos S, Eekhout I, Voerman E, Gaillard R, Barros H, Charles MA, et al. Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America, and Oceania. BMC Med. 2018;16(1):201–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1189-1.
Gilmore LA, Redman LM. Weight gain in pregnancy and application of the 2009 IOM guidelines: toward a uniform approach. Obes. 2015;23(3):507–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20951.
Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Weight gain during pregnancy: reexamining the guidelines. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2009. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK32813/.
Aller EE, Abete I, Astrup A, Martinez JA, MAv B. Starches, sugars and obesity. Nutr. 2011;3(3):341–69.
Englyst HN, Kingman S, Cummings J. Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992;46:S33–50.
Collaborators GD. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet. 2019;393(10184):1958–72.
Borch D, Juul-Hindsgaul N, Veller M, Astrup A, Jaskolowski J, Raben A. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review of clinical intervention and observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(2):489–98. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.132332.
Heidari-Beni M, Golshahi J, Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L. Potato consumption as high glycemic index food, blood pressure, and body mass index among Iranian adolescent girls. ARYA Atheroscler. 2015;11(Suppl 1):81–7.
Shih C-K, Chen C-M, Hsiao T-J, Liu C-W, Li S-C. White sweet potato as meal replacement for overweight white-collar workers: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr. 2019;11(1):165–76.
Li G, Liu B, Zhang G, Zeng J, Sun J, Ma H. Characterization of digestion resistance sweet potato starch phosphodiester. Trop J Pharm Res. 2014;13(9):1393–400. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i9.3.
Lombard M, Steyn N, Burger HM, Charlton K, Senekal M. A food photograph series for identifying portion sizes of culturally specific dishes in rural areas with high incidence of oesophageal cancer. Nutr. 2013;5(8):3118–30.
Rautiainen S, Wang L, Lee I-M, Manson JE, Buring JE, Sesso HD. Higher intake of fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese in middle-aged and older women of normal BMI at baseline. J Nutr. 2015;145(5):960–8. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.199158.
Yu ZM, DeClercq V, Cui Y, Forbes C, Grandy S, Keats M, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and body adiposity among populations in eastern Canada: the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s health study. BMJ Open. 2018;8(4):e018060. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018060.
Kaiser KA, Brown AW, Bohan-Brown MM, Shikany JM, Mattes RD, Allison DB. Increased fruit and vegetable intake has no discernible effect on weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(2):567–76. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.090548.
Larsen TM, Dalskov S-M, van Baak M, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AF, et al. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(22):2102–13. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1007137.
Kim SJ, de Souza RJ, Choo VL, Ha V, Cozma AI, Chiavaroli L, et al. Effects of dietary pulse consumption on body weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(5):1213–23. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.124677.
Maugeri A, Barchitta M, Favara G, et al. Maternal dietary patterns are associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain: results from the “Mamma & Bambino” cohort. Nutr. 2019;11(6):1308–19.
Wrottesley SV, Pisa PT, Norris SA. The influence of maternal dietary patterns on body mass index and gestational weight gain in urban black south African women. Nutr. 2017;9(7):732–46.
Rautiainen S, Wang L, Lee IM, Manson JE, Buring JE, Sesso HD. Dairy consumption in association with weight change and risk of becoming overweight or obese in middle-aged and older women: a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(4):979–88. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.118406.
Bourgi K, Rebeiro PF, Turner M, Castilho JL, Hulgan T, Raffanti SP, et al. Greater weight gain in treatment-naive persons starting dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;70(7):1267–74. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz407.
Kumar S, Samaras K. The impact of weight gain during HIV treatment on risk of pre-diabetes, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Front Endocrinol. 2018;9:705–18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00705.
Koethe JR, Lagathu C, Lake JE, Domingo P, Calmy A, Falutz J, et al. HIV and antiretroviral therapy-related fat alterations. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020;6(1):48–67. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0181-1.
Biggs C, Spooner E. Obesity and HIV: a compounding problem. South Afr J Clin Nutr. 2018;31(4):78–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/16070658.2017.1404299.
Tshikuka JG, Magafu MGMD, Rankgoane-Pono G, Mwita JC, Masupe T, Hamda SG, et al. Overweight and obesity among recipients of antiretroviral therapy at HIV clinics in Gaborone, Botswana: Factors Associated with Change in Body Mass Index. AIDS Res Treat. 2020;2020:1–8.