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Table 1 Maternal baseline characteristics of women included in the analysis, overall and stratified by HIV status, BMI and GWG category

From: Association between food intake and obesity in pregnant women living with and without HIV in Cape Town, South Africa: a prospective cohort study

   HIV status   BMI   GWG  
Characteristic Overall
N (%) = 989
Without HIV
N (%) = 510
With HIV
N (%) = 479
p value Normal
N (%) = 294
Overweight
N (%) = 244
Obese
N (%) = 427
p value Inadequate
N (%) = 266
Adequate
N (%) = 121
Excessive
N (%) = 362
p-value
Age (years)     < 0.001     < 0.001     0.077
  < 24 240 (24) 171 (34) 69 (14)   100 (34) 58 (24) 79 (19)   48 (18) 30 (25) 100 (28)  
 25–29 292 (30) 157 (31) 135 (28)   93 (32) 71 (29) 120 (28)   93 (35) 35 (29) 104 (29)  
 30–34 254 (26) 109 (21) 145 (30)   71 (24) 54 (22) 123 (29)   75 (28) 34 (28) 81 (22)  
  ≥ 35 203 (21) 73 (14) 130 (27)   30 (10) 61 (25) 105 (25)   48 (18) 22 (18) 76 (21)  
 Median (IQR) 29 (25–34) 27 (23–32) 31 (26–35)   27 (23–32) 29 (25–35) 30 (26–34)   29 (26–33) 29 (25–33) 29 (24–33)  
Education     0.015     0.870     0.661
 Primary 37 (4) 15 (3) 22 (5)   9 (3) 10 (4) 17 (4)   9 (3) 4 (3) 17 (5)  
 High school 929 (94) 477 (94) 452 (94)   277 (94) 231 (95) 399 (93)   252 (95) 113 (93) 334 (93)  
 Tertiary 23 (2) 18 (4) 5 (1)   8 (3) 3 (1) 11 (3)   3 (1) 4 (3) 10 (3)  
Socio-economic status     0.071     0.602     0.646
 Lower 325 (33) 152 (30) 173 (36)   105 (36) 72 (30) 136 (32)   87 (33) 45 (37) 119 (33)  
 Middle 274 (28) 142 (28) 132 (28)   75 (26) 71 (29) 123 (29)   81 (31) 35 (29) 96 (27)  
 Higher 388 (39) 215 (42) 173 (36)   113 (38) 100 (41) 168 (39)   96 (36) 41 (34) 144 (40)  
 Missing 2 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 1 (0.2)   1 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 0   0 0 2 (0.6)  
Relationship status     0.874     0.001     0.271
 No relationship 46 (5) 23 (5) 23 (5)   13 (4) 11 (5) 22 (5)   9 (3) 1 (1) 17 (5)  
 Not Cohabiting/married-NLT 509 (51) 267 (52) 242 (51)   180 (61) 124 (51) 194 (45)   140 (53) 72 (60) 186 (52)  
 Cohabiting/married-LT 428 (43) 218 (43) 210 (44)   98 (33) 106 (43) 211 (49)   114 (43) 48 (400 155 (43)  
 Missing 6 (1) 2 (0.4) 4 (1)   3 (1) 3 (1) 0   2 (1) 0 3 (1)  
*Alcohol use     0.982     0.599     0.227
 No 898 (91) 463 (91) 435 (91)   264 (90) 218 (89) 392 (92)   243 (92) 114 (94) 322 (89)  
 Yes 89 (9) 46 (9) 43 (9)   29 (10) 25 (10) 35 (8)   21 (8) 7 (6) 38 (11)  
 Missing 2 (0.2) 1 (0.2) 1 (0.2)   1 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 0   1 (0.4) 0 1 (0.3)  
GA at first ANC (weeks)     0.109     0.455     0.002
 1st trimester (≤13) 229 (23) 109 (21) 120 (25)   64 (22) 54 (22) 110 (26)   74 (28) 39 (32) 64 (18)  
 2nd trimester (14–28) 609 (62) 314 (62) 295 (62)   183 (62) 160 (66) 265 (62)   162 (61) 73 (60) 244 (68)  
 3rd trimester (> 28) 123 (12) 73 (14) 50 (10)   44 (15) 29 (12) 49 (11)   28 (11) 8 (7) 51 (14)  
 Missing 28 (3) 14 (3) 14 (3)   3 (1) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.7)   2 (1) 1 (1) 3 (1)  
 Median (IQR) 20 (14–25) 21 (15–26) 19 (13–24)   21 (14–26) 20 (14–23) 19 (13–24)   19 (13–24) 18 (12–22) 21 (15–25)  
Parity     < 0.001     < 0.001     0.690
 0 251 (25) 168 (33) 83 (17)   106 (36) 51 (21) 86 (20)   57 (22) 33 (27) 94 (26)  
 1 331 (33) 169 (33) 162 (34)   92 (31) 89 (36) 143 (33)   93 (35) 40 (33) 117 (32)  
  ≥ 2 407 (41) 173 (34) 234 (49)   96 (33) 104 (43) 198 (46)   114 (43) 48 (40) 150 (42)  
 Median (IQR) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 1 (1–2)   1 (0–2) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2)   1 (1–2) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2)  
  1. * In current pregnancy. Married-NLT – Married but not living together, Married-LT – married and living together, GA – gestational age, ANC – antenatal care. BMI – body mass index, GWG – gestational weight gain. Missing BMI 23 (2.4%), GWG 240 (24.3%)