Carson V, Lee EY, Hewitt L, et al. Systematic review of the relationships between physical activity and health indicators in the early years (0–4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17:854. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4860-0
Poitras VJ, Gray CE, Janssen X, et al. Systematic review of the relationships between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17:868. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4849-8
Department of Health and Social Care. UK Chief Medical Officers ’ Physical Activity Guidelines [Internet]. 2019. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/physical-activity-guidelines-uk-chief-medical-officers-report
Okely AD, Ghersi D, Hesketh KD, Santos R, Loughran SP, Cliff DP, et al. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines - The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the early years (Birth to 5 years): An integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:869. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4867-6
Tremblay MS, Chaput JP, Adamo KB, Aubert S, Barnes JD, Choquette L, et al. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0–4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:874. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4859-6
Ministry of Health. Sit Less, Move More, Sleep Well: Active Play Guidelines for Under-fives [Internet]. Wellington; 2017. Available from: health.govt.nz
World Health Organization. Guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age [Internet]. 2019. Available from: http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/311664
Bhatnagar P, Shaw A, Foster C. Generational differences in the physical activity of UK South Asians: A systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:96. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0255-8
Scarborough P, Bhatnagar P, Kaur A, Smolina K, Wickramasinghe K, Rayner M. Ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease 2010 edition [internet]. British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group 2010. Available from: https://www.bhf.org.uk/informationsupport/publications/statistics/ethnic-differences-in-cardiovascular-disease-2010
Whincup PH, Nightingale CM, Owen CG, Rudnicka AR, Gibb I, Mckay CM, et al. Early emergence of ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes precursors in the UK: The child heart and health study in England (CHASE study). PLoS Med. 2010;7(4):e1000263. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000263
Nair M, Prabhakaran D. Why do south Asians have high risk for CAD? Glob Heart [Internet]. 2012;7(4):307–14 Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2012.09.001.
Langøien LJ, Terragni L, Rugseth G, Nicolaou M, Holdsworth M, Stronks K, et al. Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in ethnic minority groups in Europe: A DEDIPAC study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:99. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0554-3
Telama R, Yang X, Leskinen E, Kankaanpaa A, Hirvensalo M, Tammelin T, et al. Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood. Med Sci Sport Exerc [Internet]. 2014;46(5):955–62 Available from: https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005768-201405000-00014.
Wright J, Small N, Raynor P, Tuffnell D, Bhopal R, Cameron N, et al. Cohort profile: the born in Bradford multi-ethnic family cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42(4):978–91.
Costa S, Barber SE, Cameron N, Clemes SA. The objective measurement of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 2-3 year olds and their parents: a cross-sectional feasibility study in the bi-ethnic born in Bradford cohort. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):1–10.
Collings PJ, Brage S, Bingham DD, Costa S, West J, McEachan RRC, et al. Physical activity, sedentary time, and fatness in a Biethnic sample of young children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49(5):930–8.
Barber SE, Jackson C, Hewitt C, Ainsworth HR, Buckley H, Akhtar S, et al. Assessing the feasibility of evaluating and delivering a physical activity intervention for pre-school children: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2016;2(1):1–13.
Department for Communities and Local Government. The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2017 Jan 1]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/english-indices-of-deprivation-2015
Bingham DD, Costa S, Clemes SA, Routen AC, Moore HJ, Barber SE. Accelerometer data requirements for reliable estimation of habitual physical activity and sedentary time of children during the early years - a worked example following a stepped approach. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(20):2005–10.
Butte NF, Wong WW, Lee JS, Adolph AL, Puyau MR, Zakeri IF. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(6):1216–26.
Leeger-Aschmann CS, Schmutz EA, Zysset AE, Kakebeeke TH, Messerli-Bürgy N, Stülb K, et al. Accelerometer-derived physical activity estimation in preschoolers – comparison of cut-point sets incorporating the vector magnitude vs the vertical axis. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2019;19(1):513 Available from: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6837-7.
Department for Communities and Local Government. English indices of deprivation 2015 Postcode lookup [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2017 Jan 1]. Available from: http://imd-by-postcode.opendatacommunities.org/imd/2015
Collings PJ, Farrar D, Gibson J, West J, Barber SE, Wright J. Associations of Pregnancy Physical Activity with Maternal Cardiometabolic Health, Neonatal Delivery Outcomes and Body Composition in a Biethnic Cohort of 7305 Mother–Child Pairs: The Born in Bradford Study. Sport Med [Internet]. 2019 Sep 26; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01193-8.
Qiao Y, Ma J, Wang Y, Li W, Katzmarzyk PT, Chaput J-P, et al. Birth weight and childhood obesity: a 12-country study. Int J Obes Suppl. 2015;5(Suppl 2):S74-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijosup.2015.23
Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA. Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child. 1995;73(1):25–9.
White IR, Royston P, Wood AM. Multiple imputation using chained equations: Issues and guidance for practice. Stat Med. 2011;30(4):377–99.
Hnatiuk JA, Salmon J, Hinkley T, Okely AD, Trost S. A review of preschool children’s physical activity and sedentary time using objective measures. Am J Prev Med. 2014;47:487–97.
Sijtsma A, Sauer PJJ, Corpeleijn E. Parental correlations of physical activity and body mass index in young children- the GECKO Drenthe cohort. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act [Internet]. 2015;12(1):1–7 Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0295-0.
Berglind D, Tynelius P. Objectively measured physical activity patterns, sedentary time and parent-reported screen-time across the day in four-year-old Swedish children. BMC Public Health. 2017;18(1):1–9.
Arhab A, Messerli-Burgy N, Kakebeeke TH, Lanzi S, Stulb K, Zysset AE, et al. Childcare correlates of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in preschool children: A cross-sectional analysis of the splashy study. J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9157194
Butte NF, Puyau MR, Wilson TA, Liu Y, Wong WW, Adolph AL, et al. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children. Obesity. 2016;24(6):1328–35.
Hesketh KR, McMinn AM, Ekelund U, Sharp SJ, Collings PJ, Harvey NC, et al. Objectively measured physical activity in four-year-old British children: a cross-sectional analysis of activity patterns segmented across the day. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act [Internet]. 2014;11:1 Available from: https://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-11-1.
Pereira JR, Cliff DP, Sousa-Sá E, Zhang Z, Santos R. Prevalence of objectively measured sedentary behavior in early years: systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2019;29(3):308–28.
Love R, Atkin A, Adams J, van Sluijs EM. Socio-economic and ethnic differences in children’s vigorous intensity physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis of the UK millennium cohort study. BMJ Open. 2019;9(e027627):1–8.
West J, Lawlor DA, Fairley L, Wright J. Differences in socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics between Pakistani and White British women in the Born in Bradford prospective cohort study: The influence of the woman’s, her partner’s and their parents’ place. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004805. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004805
Nagy LC, Faisal M, Horne M, Collings P, Barber S, Mohammed M. Factors associated with accelerometer measured movement behaviours among White British and South Asian children aged 6–8 years during school terms and school holidays. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2019;9(8):e025071 Available from: http://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025071.
Barber SE, Kelly B, Collings PJ, Nagy L, Bywater T, Wright J. Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14:88. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0541-8
Collings PJ, Kelly B, West J, Wright J. Associations of TV viewing duration, meals and snacks eaten when watching TV, and a TV in the Bedroom with child adiposity. Obesity. 2018;26(10):1619–28.
Sherry AP, Pearson N, Ridgers ND, Barber SE, Bingham DD, Nagy LC, Clemes SA. activPAL-measured sitting levels and patterns in 9–10 years old children from a UK city. J Public Health. 2019;41(4):757–64. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy181.
Pallan M, Parry J, Adab P. Contextual influences on the development of obesity in children: a case study of UK south Asian communities. Prev Med (Baltim) [Internet]. 2012;54(3–4):205–11 Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.01.018.
Nagy LC, Horne M, Faisal M, et al. Ethnic differences in sedentary behaviour in 6–8-year-old children during school terms and school holidays: a mixed methods study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19:152. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6456-3.
Sallis JF. Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(9):1598–600.
Schmutz EA, Haile SR, Leeger-Aschmann CS, et al. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschoolers: A longitudinal assessment of trajectories and determinants. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018;15:35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0670-8.
Hnatiuk JA, Lamb KE, Ridgers ND, Salmon J, Hesketh KD. Changes in volume and bouts of physical activity and sedentary time across early childhood: a longitudinal study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2019;16(1):1–9.
Collings PJ, Westgate K, Väistö J, Wijndaele K, Atkin AJ, Haapala EA, et al. Cross-sectional associations of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in mid-childhood: the PANIC study. Sport Med. 2017;47(4):769–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0606-x.
Bingham DD, Costa S, Hinkley T, Shire KA, Clemes SA, Barber SE. Physical activity during the early years: a systematic review of correlates and determinants. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(3):384–402.
Hnatiuk J, Ridgers ND, Salmon J, Campbell K, McCallum Z, Hesketh K. Physical activity levels and patterns of 19-month-old children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(9):1715–20. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31825825c4
Olesen LG, Kristensen PL, Ried-Larsen M, Grøntved A, Froberg K. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14(229):1.
Garriguet D, Carson V, Colley RC, Janssen I, Timmons BW, Tremblay MS. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Canadian children aged 3 to 5. Heal Reports. 2016;27(9):14–23.
Rai KK, Dogra SA, Barber S, Adab P, Summerbell C. A scoping review and systematic mapping of health promotion interventions associated with obesity in Islamic religious settings in the UK. Obes Rev. 2019;20(9):1231–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12874
Cronin-de-Chavez A, Islam S, McEachan RRC. Not a level playing field: a qualitative study exploring structural, community and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst low-income multi-ethnic families. Heal place [internet]. 2019;56(November 2018):118–26. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.01.018.
Collings PJ, Wijndaele K, Corder K, Westgate K, Ridgway CL, Dunn V, et al. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act [Internet]. 2014;11(1):23 Available from: http://ijbnpa.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1479-5868-11-23.
O’Donoghue G, Kennedy A, Puggina A, Aleksovska K, Buck C, Burns C, et al. Socio-economic determinants of physical activity across the life course: a “DEterminants of DIet and physical ACtivity” (DEDIPAC) umbrella literature review. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):1–24.
Faurholt-Jepsen D, Hansen KB, Van Hees VT, Christensen LB, Girma T, Friis H, et al. Children treated for severe acute malnutrition experience a rapid increase in physical activity a few days after admission. J Pediatr [Internet]. 2014;164(6):1421–4 Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.02.014.
Pearce A, Rougeaux E, Law C. Disadvantaged children at greater relative risk of thinness (as well as obesity): a secondary data analysis of the England National Child Measurement Programme and the UK millennium cohort study. Int J Equity Health [Internet]. 2015;14(1):1–12 Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-015-0187-6.
Hildebrand M, Øglund GP, Wells JC, Ekelund U. Prenatal, birth and early life predictors of sedentary behavior in young people: A systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016;13:63. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-016-0389-3
Hesketh KR, Brage S, Cooper C, Godfrey KM, Harvey NC, Inskip HM, et al. The association between maternal-child physical activity levels at the transition to formal schooling: cross-sectional and prospective data from the Southampton Women’s survey. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2019;16(1):1–9.
Blomberg M, Tyrberg RB, Kjølhede P. Impact of maternal age on obstetric and neonatal outcome with emphasis on primiparous adolescents and older women: A Swedish Medical Birth Register Study. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e005840. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005840
Barker DJP, Osmond C, Forsén TJ, Thornburg KL, Kajantie E, Eriksson JG. Foetal and childhood growth and asthma in adult life. Acta Paediatr. 2013;102(7):732–8.
Hediger ML, Overpeck MD, Ruan WJ, Troendle JF. Birthweight and gestational age effects on motor and social development. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2002;16(1):33–46.
West J, Kelly B, Collings PJ, Santorelli G, Mason D, Wright J. Is small size at birth associated with early childhood morbidity in white British and Pakistani origin UK children aged 0-3? Findings from the born in Bradford cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2018;18(1):1–10.
Van Deutekom AW, Chinapaw MJM, Vrijkotte TGM, Gemke RJBJ. The association of birth weight and infant growth with physical fitness at 8-9 years of age - the ABCD study. Int J Obes. 2015;39(4):593–600.
Kelly Y, Panico L, Bartley M, Marmot M, Nazroo J, Sacker A. Why does birthweight vary among ethnic groups in the UK? Findings from the millennium cohort study. J Public Health (Bangkok). 2009;31(1):131–7.
Van Deutekom AW, Chinapaw MJM, Jansma EP, Vrijkotte TGM, Gemke RJBJ. The association of birth weight and infant growth with energy balance-related behavior - a systematic review and best-evidence synthesis of human studies. PLoS One [Internet]. 2017;12(1):1–21 Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168186.
Bhopal RS. Research agenda for tackling inequalities related to migration and ethnicity in Europe. J Public Heal (United Kingdom). 2012;34(2):167–73.
Shakir RN, Coates AM, Olds T, Rowlands A, Tsiros MD. Not all sedentary behaviour is equal: Children’s adiposity and sedentary behaviour volumes, patterns and types. Obes Res Clin Pract [internet]. 2018;12(6):506–12 Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2018.09.001.
Public Health England. NCMP and Child Obesity Profile [Internet]. [cited 2019 May 6]. Available from: https://fingertips.phe.org.uk/profile/national-child-measurement-programme