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Table 2 Daily levels and patterns of physical activity and sedentary time

From: Objectively-measured sedentary time and physical activity in a bi-ethnic sample of young children: variation by socio-demographic, temporal and perinatal factors

  Characteristic Sedentary time (%) p-value Light activity (%) p-value MVPA (%) p-value Vector Magnitude (CPM) p-value
South Asian (participants: 202; time-points: 380; 2011 days) Overall 48.6 (47.6 to 49.7) Ref 42.2 (41.4 to 43.0) Ref 8.0 (7.6 to 8.6) Ref 1392.9 (1353.3 to 1432.4) Ref
Sex
 Boys 48.2 (46.8 to 49.5) Ref 41.8 (40.7 to 42.8) Ref 8.9 (8.2 to 9.7) Ref 1444.2 (1391.7 to 1496.6) Ref
 Girls 49.5 (48.2 to 50.8) 0.18 42.3 (41.3 to 43.3) 0.46 7.1 (6.6 to 7.7) < 0.001 1330.3 (1279.8 to 1380.7) 0.003
Age (y)
 2 50.7 (48.8 to 52.5)   41.7 (40.3 to 43.2)   6.5 (5.8 to 7.3)   1285.7 (1213.8 to 1357.5)  
 3 49.5 (48.4 to 50.5) p-trend 42.0 (41.1 to 42.8) p-trend 7.4 (7.0 to 7.9) p-trend 1351.2 (1311.3 to 1391.1) p-trend
 4 48.3 (47.1 to 49.4) 0.036 42.2 (41.3 to 43.0) 0.63 8.4 (7.9 to 9.0) < 0.001 1416.8 (1375.0 to 1458.5) 0.003
Area deprivation
 Most deprived 10% 49.1 (48.0 to 50.2) Ref 41.9 (41.0 to 42.7) Ref 7.9 (7.4 to 8.4) Ref 1377.8 (1337.5 to 1418.1) Ref
 > 10 to 30% 47.6 (45.5 to 49.8) 0.23 42.9 (41.3 to 44.6) 0.24 8.2 (7.2 to 9.2) 0.61 1418.8 (1338.3 to 1499.3) 0.38
 > 30% 50.1 (46.0 to 54.2) 0.65 41.6 (38.5 to 44.8) 0.89 7.4 (5.9 to 9.3) 0.60 1324.8 (1172.8 to 1476.9) 0.51
Annual income (£)
 <£6999 47.9 (45.8 to 50.0) Ref 43.2 (41.4 to 45.0) Ref 7.9 (7.2 to 8.8) Ref 1389.2 (1320.6 to 1457.9) Ref
 £7000 to £16,999 48.5 (46.9 to 50.1) 0.71 42.1 (40.9 to 43.3) 0.37 8.2 (7.5 to 9.0) 0.62 1405.0 (1345.3 to 1464.6) 0.76
 ≥£17,000 51.5 (48.9 to 54.0) 0.050 40.0 (38.0 to 42.0) 0.032 7.1 (6.1 to 8.2) 0.24 1323.2 (1229.2 to 1417.2) 0.29
Weight status
 Underweight 49.5 (45.7 to 53.3) 0.72 41.1 (38.2 to 44.0) 0.52 8.0 (6.3 to 10.1) 0.89 1398.7 (1261.0 to 1536.4) 0.84
 Healthy weight 48.8 (47.8 to 49.9) Ref 42.1 (41.3 to 42.9) Ref 7.9 (7.4 to 8.4) Ref 1384.3 (1345.3 to 1423.3) Ref
 Overweight / obese 49.0 (46.7 to 51.3) 0.88 42.2 (40.4 to 44.0) 0.95 7.9 (6.9 to 9.0) 0.99 1367.9 (1284.2 to 1451.7) 0.73
Type of day
 Weekday 49.2 (48.3 to 50.2) Ref 42.0 (41.3 to 42.7) Ref 7.7 (7.3 to 8.1) Ref 1360.2 (1325.1 to 1395.3) Ref
 Weekend 47.7 (46.7 to 48.8) < 0.001 42.3 (41.5 to 43.1) 0.27 8.7 (8.2 to 9.3) < 0.001 1452.2 (1412.7 to 1491.8) < 0.001
Season
 Winter 52.4 (50.6 to 54.2) Ref 39.4 (38.0 to 40.9) Ref 6.9 (6.2 to 7.8) Ref 1262.5 (1197.2 to 1327.8) Ref
 Spring 48.4 (46.5 to 50.4) 0.002 42.1 (40.6 to 43.6) 0.008 8.3 (7.4 to 9.3) 0.025 1413.3 (1342.9 to 1483.6) 0.001
 Summer 47.2 (45.5 to 48.8) < 0.001 43.3 (42.0 to 44.6) < 0.001 8.5 (7.7 to 9.4) 0.004 1444.9 (1385.2 to 1504.6) < 0.001
 Autumn 48.3 (47.0 to 49.6) < 0.001 42.6 (41.6 to 43.6) < 0.001 7.9 (7.3 to 8.5) 0.051 1391.3 (1342.1 to 1440.5) < 0.001
Birth weight
 Low 49.7 (46.5 to 52.9) 0.83 42.1 (39.6 to 44.6) 0.86 7.3 (6.0 to 8.8) 0.65 1315.1 (1195.7 to 1434.5) 0.46
 Normal 49.3 (47.8 to 50.7) Ref 41.9 (40.7 to 43.0) Ref 7.6 (7.0 to 8.3) Ref 1366.4 (1312.8 to 1419.9) Ref
 High 46.7 (43.3 to 50.0) 0.17 42.7 (40.4 to 45.1) 0.51 9.6 (7.8 to 11.7) 0.046 1510.1 (1371.1 to 1649.1) 0.062
Maternal delivery age (y)
 < 25 47.7 (45.4 to 50.1) Ref 42.9 (41.1 to 44.8) Ref 8.2 (7.2 to 9.4) Ref 1414.6 (1328.1 to 1501.1) Ref
 ≥25 to < 30 48.0 (46.5 to 49.5) 0.87 42.4 (41.2 to 43.5) 0.61 8.6 (7.9 to 9.4) 0.60 1429.4 (1371.5 to 1487.3) 0.78
 ≥30 50.5 (48.8 to 52.2) 0.069 41.3 (40.0 to 42.6) 0.16 7.0 (6.4 to 7.7) 0.057 1313.3 (1251.4 to 1375.2) 0.071
White British (participants: 140; time-points: 220; days: 1170) Overall 49.8 (48.5 to 51.2) 0.22 41.5 (40.4 to 42.5) 0.28 7.5 (6.9 to 8.1) 0.22 1349.5 (1297.7 to 1401.4) 0.24
Sex
 Boys 49.7 (48.0 to 51.4) Ref 41.0 (39.8 to 42.3) Ref 8.0 (7.2 to 8.9) Ref 1381.1 (1321.5 to 1440.7) Ref
 Girls 48.9 (47.0 to 50.7) 0.55 42.6 (41.2 to 44.0) 0.10 7.4 (6.6 to 8.3) 0.28 1355.7 (1290.4 to 1421.1) 0.59
Age (y)
 2 52.8 (50.6 to 55.0)   40.1 (38.5 to 41.8)   6.0 (5.3 to 6.9)   1217.7 (1141.3 to 1294.1)  
 3 49.9 (48.7 to 51.1)   41.5 (40.6 to 42.4)   7.4 (6.9 to 8.0)   1344.4 (1301.1 to 1387.7)  
 4 47.0 (45.2 to 48.7) < 0.001 42.9 (41.5 to 44.2) 0.027 9.1 (8.1 to 10.2) < 0.001 1471.1 (1408.5 to 1533.8) < 0.001
Area deprivation
 Most deprived 10% 49.4 (47.5 to 51.2) Ref 41.8 (40.4 to 43.2) Ref 7.7 (6.9 to 8.7) Ref 1365.5 (1300.2 to 1430.7) Ref
 > 10 to 30% 49.6 (47.4 to 51.7) 0.91 41.7 (40.1 to 43.4) 0.97 7.4 (6.5 to 8.5) 0.69 1360.6 (1284.1 to 1437.0) 0.93
 > 30% 48.9 (46.1 to 51.6) 0.76 41.8 (39.7 to 43.9) 0.99 8.2 (6.9 to 9.8) 0.56 1391.3 (1294.5 to 1488.1) 0.67
Annual income (£)
 <£6999 48.9 (46.6 to 51.1) Ref 42.2 (40.5 to 44.0) Ref 7.4 (6.4 to 8.7) Ref 1383.9 (1302.4 to 1465.5) Ref
 £7000 to £16,999 50.0 (46.5 to 53.5) 0.60 41.5 (38.9 to 44.1) 0.65 7.3 (5.8 to 9.2) 0.92 1337.3 (1213.3 to 1461.4) 0.55
 ≥£17,000 49.5 (47.5 to 51.5) 0.70 41.4 (39.9 to 43.0) 0.54 8.1 (7.1 to 9.3) 0.47 1367.8 (1296.2 to 1439.4) 0.79
Weight status
 Underweight 51.3 (43.7 to 58.8) 0.68 41.3 (35.6 to 46.9) 0.94 5.7 (3.0 to 10.9) 0.37 1254.6 (992.1 to 1517.1) 0.45
 Healthy weight 49.7 (48.2 to 51.1) Ref 41.5 (40.4 to 42.6) Ref 7.7 (7.0 to 8.4) Ref 1357.2 (1306.5 to 1407.9) Ref
 Overweight / obese 48.2 (45.8 to 50.7) 0.32 42.5 (40.7 to 44.4) 0.34 8.0 (6.8 to 9.5) 0.66 1413.1 (1325.4 to 1500.7) 0.29
Type of day
 Weekday 49.4 (48.2 to 50.6) Ref 41.9 (41.0 to 42.8) Ref 7.6 (7.0 to 8.2) Ref 1356.2 (1313.0 to 1399.4) Ref
 Weekend 49.2 (47.7 to 50.6) 0.68 41.3 (40.2 to 42.4) 0.17 8.3 (7.6 to 9.1) < 0.001 1412.8 (1361.9 to 1463.6) 0.002
Season
 Winter 51.0 (49.0 to 53.0) Ref 40.6 (39.0 to 42.2) Ref 7.1 (6.2 to 8.1) Ref 1313.3 (1242.8 to 1383.9) Ref
 Spring 48.3 (46.3 to 50.3) 0.039 42.2 (40.7 to 43.7) 0.10 8.5 (7.5 to 9.6) 0.034 1408.4 (1340.0 to 1476.9) 0.034
 Summer 48.6 (46.5 to 50.8) 0.098 42.9 (41.3 to 44.6) 0.033 7.5 (6.6 to 8.6) 0.54 1382.1 (1307.8 to 1456.4) 0.16
 Autumn 49.4 (47.4 to 51.3) 0.19 41.5 (40.0 to 43.0) 0.35 7.8 (6.9 to 8.8) 0.26 1370.6 (1303.0 to 1438.3) 0.18
Birth weight
 Low 49.5 (42.8 to 56.3) 0.89 42.0 (37.0 to 47.0) 0.81 6.8 (4.3 to 10.9) 0.74 1356.2 (1114.7 to 1597.7) 0.90
 Normal 50.0 (47.9 to 52.1) Ref 41.3 (39.8 to 42.9) Ref 7.4 (6.5 to 8.5) Ref 1340.0 (1263.2 to 1416.9) Ref
 High 48.5 (46.1 to 51.0) 0.42 42.2 (40.4 to 43.9) 0.53 8.2 (7.1 to 9.6) 0.35 1403.6 (1311.6 to 1495.7) 0.37
Maternal delivery age (y)
 < 25 48.0 (46.0 to 50.0) Ref 42.7 (41.2 to 44.1) Ref 8.3 (7.3 to 9.3) Ref 1425.6 (1357.3 to 1493.8) Ref
 ≥25 to < 30 50.8 (48.5 to 53.1) 0.068 40.3 (38.5 to 42.1) 0.047 7.4 (6.4 to 8.6) 0.26 1338.7 (1256.3 to 1421.1) 0.12
 ≥30 49.8 (47.5 to 52.1) 0.24 41.8 (40.0 to 43.5) 0.46 7.4 (6.4 to 8.6) 0.30 1327.6 (1244.0 to 1411.2) 0.086
  1. Statistical analyses performed on multiple (n = 60) imputed datasets using multilevel linear regression to account for clustering of days within time-points and children. Overall estimates are from analyses of the total sample with ethnic group modelled as an independent variable, p-values represent differences compared to the South Asian ethnic group. Otherwise all analyses were stratified by South Asian (202 children; 380 time-points; 2011 days) and white British (140 children; 220 time-points; 1170 days) ethnic groups. All factors were mutually adjusted for one another except area deprivation and annual income which occupied separate models. South Asian ethnicity includes Pakistani (n = 154), Bangladeshi (n = 21), Indian (n = 4), and ‘Other South Asian’ including country of origin unknown (n = 23). MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity