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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the study population

From: Objectively-measured sedentary time and physical activity in a bi-ethnic sample of young children: variation by socio-demographic, temporal and perinatal factors

Data level Characteristic Total
(n = 342)
South Asian
(n = 202)
White British
(n = 140)
p-value ethnic
difference
Participant Sex (n (%))
 Boys 175 (51.2) 100 (49.5) 75 (53.6)  
 Girls 167 (48.8) 102 (50.5) 65 (46.4) 0.46
Area deprivationa (n (%))
 Most deprived 10% 209 (61.1) 146 (72.3) 63 (45.0)  
 > 10 to 30% 94 (27.5) 46 (22.8) 48 (34.3)  
 > 30% 39 (11.4) 10 (4.9) 29 (20.7) < 0.001
Annual income (n (%))
 <£6999 36 (27.1) 19 (22.9) 17 (34.0)  
 £7000 to £16,999 60 (45.1) 46 (55.4) 14 (28.0)  
 ≥£17,000 37 (27.8) 18 (21.7) 19 (38.0) 0.008
Maternal delivery age (n (%))
 < 25y 74 (29.7) 26 (20.2) 48 (40.0)  
 ≥25 to < 30 98 (39.4) 60 (46.5) 38 (31.7)  
 ≥30y 77 (30.9) 43 (33.3) 34 (28.3) 0.002
Birth weight (n (%))
 Low 10 (7.8) 7 (10.8) 3 (4.8)  
 Normal 77 (60.2) 44 (67.7) 33 (52.4)  
 High 41 (32.0) 14 (21.5) 27 (42.9) 0.026
   Total
(n = 600)
South Asian
(n = 380)
White British
(n = 220)
 
Time-point Age (y) 3.4 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 0.7 < 0.001
Weight statusb (n (%))
 Underweight 23 (4.7) 19 (5.9) 4 (2.4)  
 Healthy weight 371 (76.0) 251 (77.4) 120 (73.2)  
 Overweight or obese 94 (19.3) 54 (16.7) 40 (24.4) 0.014
   Total
(n = 3181)
South Asian
(n = 2011)
White British
(n = 1170)
 
Daily Wear time (min/d) 603.8 (199.3) 604.3 (208.3) 601.9 (181.8) 0.051
Type of day (n (%))
 Weekday 2418 (76.0) 1524 (75.8) 894 (76.4)  
 Weekend 763 (24.0) 487 (24.2) 276 (23.6) 0.69
Season (n (%))
 Winter 647 (20.3) 365 (18.2) 282 (24.1)  
 Spring 729 (22.9) 404 (20.1) 325 (27.8)  
 Summer 609 (19.1) 380 (18.9) 229 (19.6)  
 Autumn 1196 (37.6) 862 (42.9) 334 (28.6) < 0.001
Inactive (n (%))c 2073 (65.2) 1284 (63.9) 789 (67.4) 0.21
  1. Ethnic differences were analysed using chi-square tests at the participant level; linear and ordered logistic regression with a random intercept to account for clustering within children at the time-point level; linear and ordered logistic regression with two random intercepts to account for days nested within measurement time-points clustered within children at the daily level. Wear time was skewed and was natural log transformed prior to analysis, and median (iqr) rather than mean ± standard deviation values are presented. aBased on the national measure of relative deprivation for small areas in England. bBased on British growth reference data. cInactive was defined as failing to meet the new international guideline daily amount of physical activity for children aged 3 to 4 years (≥180 min of total physical activity including ≥60 min MVPA). South Asian ethnicity includes Pakistani (n = 154), Bangladeshi (n = 21), Indian (n = 4), and ‘Other South Asian’ including specific country of origin unknown (n = 23). MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity