World Health Organization. What is Healthy Ageing? https://www.who.int/ageing/healthy-ageing/en/. Accessed 28 June 2019.
Litwin H. Physical activity, social network type, and depressive symptoms in late life: an analysis of data from the National Social Life, health and aging project. Aging Ment Health. 2012;16(5):608–16.
Nelson LA, Noonan CJ, Goldberg J, Buchwald DS. Social engagement and physical and cognitive health among American Indian participants in the health and retirement study. J Cross Cult Gerontol 2013;28(4):453–3.
Aida J, Kondo K, Hirai H, Subramanian SV, Murata C, Kondo N, et al. Assessing the association between all-cause mortality and multiple aspects of individual social capital among the older Japanese. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:499.
Stamatakis E, Hamer M, Dunstan DW. Screen-based entertainment time, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular events: population-based study with ongoing mortality and hospital events follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(3):292–9.
Berkman LF, Glass T, Brissette I, Seeman TE. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51(6):843–57.
Samuel LJ, Dennison Himmelfarb CR, Szklo M, Seeman TE, Echeverria SE, Diez Roux AV. Social engagement and chronic disease risk behaviors: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Prev Med. 2015;71:61–6.
Kikuchi H, Inoue S, Fukushima N, Takamiya T, Odagiri Y, Ohya Y, et al. Social participation among older adults not engaged in full- or part-time work is associated with more physical activity and less sedentary time. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017;17(11):1921–7.
Kawachi I, Berkman L. Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In: Berkman LF, Kawachi I, and Glymour MM, editors. Social Epidemiology. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press. 2014. p.174–190.
Van Holle V, McNaughton SA, Teychenne M, Timperio A, Van Dyck D, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Social and physical environmental correlates of adults' weekend sitting time and moderating effects of retirement status and physical health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(9):9790–810.
Lindstrom M, Giordano GN. Changes in social capital and cigarette smoking behavior over time: a population-based panel study of temporal relationships. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18(11):2106–14.
Sapag JC, Poblete FC, Eicher C, Aracena M, Caneo C, Vera G, et al. Tobacco smoking in urban neighborhoods: exploring social capital as a protective factor in Santiago. Chile Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(9):927–36.
Ding D, Hovell MF, Ji M, Hofstetter CR, Zheng P, Fu H, et al. Employment and social "determinants" of smoking in urbanizing China: a representative survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(7):779–84.
Dare J, Wilkinson C, Allsop S, Waters S, McHale S. Social engagement, setting and alcohol use among a sample of older Australians. Health Soc Care Community. 2014;22(5):524–32.
Martinez P, Lien L, Landheim A, Kowal P, Clausen T. Quality of life and social engagement of alcohol abstainers and users among older adults in South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:316.
Kowal P, Chatterji S, Naidoo N, Biritwum R, Fan W, Lopez Ridaura R, et al. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41(6):1639–49.
World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.
Bull FC, Maslin TS, Armstrong T. Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ): nine country reliability and validity study. J Phys Act Health. 2009;6(6):790–804.
World Health Organization. The STEPS instrument and support materials. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
Chau JY, Grunseit AC, Chey T, Stamatakis E, Brown WJ, Matthews CE, et al. Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80000.
Cappuccio FP, Cooper D, D'Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA. Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(12):1484–92.
Cappuccio FP, D'Elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA. Sleep duration and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Sleep. 2010;33(5):585–92.
Anand A. Understanding depression among older adults in six low-middle income countries using WHO-SAGE survey. Behav Health. 2015;1(2):1–11.
da Rocha NS, Power MJ, Bushnell DM, Fleck MP. The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index: comparative psychometric properties to its parent WHOQOL-BREF. Value Health. 2012;15(3):449–57.
Yun EH, Kang YH, Lim MK, Oh JK, Son JM. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:78.
Chuang YC, Chuang KY. Gender differences in relationships between social capital and individual smoking and drinking behavior in Taiwan. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67(8):1321–30.
Li S, Horner P, Delva J. Social capital and cigarette smoking among Latinos in the United States. Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2012(3 (Supplement 1)):83–92.
Pokhrel P, Fagan P, Cassel K, Trinidad DR, Kaholokula JK, Herzog TA. Social network characteristics, social support, and cigarette smoking among Asian/Pacific islander young adults. Am J Community Psychol. 2016;57(3–4):353–65.
Liu S, Zhang M, Yang L, Li Y, Wang L, Huang Z, et al. Prevalence and patterns of tobacco smoking among Chinese adult men and women: findings of the 2010 national smoking survey. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017;71(2):154–61.
Burgess DJ, Mock J, Schillo BA, Saul JE, Phan T, Chhith Y, et al. Culture, acculturation and smoking use in Hmong, Khmer, Laotians, and Vietnamese communities in Minnesota. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:791.
Saw A, Paterniti D, Fung L-C, Tsoh JY, Chen MS, K. Tong E. Social environmental influences on smoking and cessation: qualitative perspectives among Chinese-speaking smokers and nonsmokers in California. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017;19(6):1404–11.
Mao A, Yang T, Bottorff JL, Sarbit G. Personal and social determinants sustaining smoking practices in rural China: a qualitative study. Int J Equity Health. 2014;13:12.
Ding D, Hovell MF. Cigarettes, social reinforcement, and culture: a commentary on "tobacco as a social currency: cigarette gifting and sharing in China". Nicotine Tob Res. 2012;14(3):255–7.
World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
Alexander F, Duff RW. Social interaction and alcohol use in retirement communities. Gerontologist. 1988;28(5):632–6.
Rapacciuolo A, Perrone Filardi P, Cuomo R, Mauriello V, Quarto M, Kisslinger A, et al. The impact of social and cultural engagement and dieting on well-being and resilience in a Group of Residents in the metropolitan area of Naples. J Aging Res. 2016;2016:4768420.
Jones CDB, Donaldson C. Recipe for life: helping older people eat well. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret University College; 2005.
Holmes BA, Roberts CL. Diet quality and the influence of social and physical factors on food consumption and nutrient intake in materially deprived older people. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(4):538–45.
Wang Z, Xiang X, Li X, He Y, Yang Y. Survey on diet and nutrition intake for customers from out-home eating in Beijing. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2015;44(2):232–6 241.
Llanaj E, Adany R, Lachat C, D'Haese M. Examining food intake and eating out of home patterns among university students. PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0197874.
Owen N, Sugiyama T, Eakin EE, Gardiner PA, Tremblay MS, Sallis JF. Adults' sedentary behavior determinants and interventions. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(2):189–96.
Martin JL, Ancoli-Israel S. Sleep disturbances in long-term care. Clin Geriatr Med. 2008;24(1):39–50 vi.
Win T, Yamazaki T, Kanda K, Tajima K, Sokejima S. Neighborhood social capital and sleep duration: a population based cross-sectional study in a rural Japanese town. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):343.
Nieminen T, Prattala R, Martelin T, Harkanen T, Hyyppa MT, Alanen E, et al. Social capital, health behaviours and health: a population-based associational study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:613.
Kuck J, Pantke M, Flick U. Effects of social activation and physical mobilization on sleep in nursing home residents. Geriatr Nurs. 2014;35(6):455–61.
Lei P, Xu L, Nwaru BI, Long Q, Wu Z. Social networks and health-related quality of life among Chinese old adults in urban areas: results from 4th National Household Health Survey. Public Health. 2016;131:27–39.
Rafnsson SB, Shankar A, Steptoe A. Longitudinal influences of social network characteristics on subjective well-being of older adults: findings from the ELSA study. J Aging Health. 2015;27(5):919–34.
Litwin H, Shiovitz-Ezra S. Social network type and subjective well-being in a national sample of older Americans. Gerontologist. 2011;51(3):379–88.
Takagi D, Kondo K, Kawachi I. Social participation and mental health: moderating effects of gender, social role and rurality. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:701.