Garden FL, Jalaludin BB: Impact of urban sprawl on overweight, obesity, and physical activity in Sydney, Australia. J Urban Health. 2008, 86: 19-30.
Lovasi GS, Neckerman KM, Quinn JW, Weiss CC, Rundle A: Effect of individual or neighborhood disadvantage on the association between neighborhood walkability and body mass index. Am J Public Health. 2009, 99: 279-284. 10.2105/AJPH.2008.138230.
McCann BA, Ewing R: Measuring the health effects of sprawl. A national analysis of physical activity, obesity and chronic disease. Smart Growth America. Surface Transportation Policy Project. 2003, Washington DC, http://smartgrowth.umd.edu/assets/ewingmccann_2003.pdf,
Frumkin H: Urban sprawl and public health. Public Health Rep. 2002, 117: 201-217.
Heliövaara M, Aromaa A: Height, weight and obesity of Finnish adults. 1980, Helsinki, Finland: Publications of the Social Insurance Institution, Finland, ML:19, Finnish, with English summary
Näyhä S, Hassi J: Life style, work and health of Finnish reindeer herders. Life style, work and health of Finnish reindeer herders. Helsinki: The Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Edited by: Näyhä S, Hassi J. 1993, Finland: Publications of the Social Insurance Institution, 217-237. ML:127 ]
Pietinen P, Vartiainen E, Männistö S: Trends in body mass index and obesity among adults in Finland from 1972 to 1992. Int J Obes. 1996, 20: 114-120.
Fogelholm M, Valve R, Absetz P, Heinonen H, Uutela A, Patja K, Karisto A, Konttinen R, Mäkelä T, Nissinen A, Jallinoja P, Nummela O, Talja M: Rural–urban differences in health and health behaviour: a baseline description of a community health-promotion programme for the elderly. Scand J Public Health. 2006, 34: 632-640. 10.1080/14034940600616039.
Jokela M, Kivimäki M, Elovainio M, Viikari J, Raitakari OT, Keltikangas-Järvinen L: Urban/rural differences in body weight. Evidence for social selection and causation hypothesis in Finland. Soc Sci Med. 2009, 68: 867-875. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.12.022.
Lahti-Koski M, Taskinen O, Similä M, Männistö S, Laatikainen T, Knekt P, Valsta LM: Mapping geographical variation in obesity in Finland. Eur J Public Health. 2008, 18: 637-643. 10.1093/eurpub/ckn089.
Rusanen J, Muilu T, Colpaert A, Naukkarinen A: Georeferenced data as a tool for monitoring the concentration of population in Finland in 1970–1998. Fennia, Int J Geography. 2003, 181: 129-144.
Zick CD, Smith KR, Fan JX, Brown BB, Yamada I, Kowaleski-Jones L: Running to the store? The relationship between neighborhood environments and the risk of obesity. Soc Sci Med. 2009, 69: 1493-1500. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.08.032.
Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD: Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Ann Behav Med. 2003, 25: 80-91. 10.1207/S15324796ABM2502_03.
Finnish road statistics. http://www2.liikennevirasto.fi/julkaisut/pdf3/lti_2011-06_tietilasto_2010_web.pdf,
Uimonen S: Measuring the highway capital in Finland 1900–2009. Tampere Economic Working Papers Net Series 81. 2010, Tampere, Finland, http://urn.fi/urn:isbn:978-951-44-8226-7,
Kaakinen M, Läärä E, Pouta A, Hartikainen AL, Laitinen J, Tammelin TH, Herzig KH, Sovio U, Bennet AJ, Peltonen L, McCarthy MI, Elliot P, DeStavola B, Järvelin MR: Life course analysis of a fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene Variant and body mass index in the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966 using structural equation modelling. Am J Epidemiol. 2010, 172: 653-665. 10.1093/aje/kwq178.
Hu G, Qiao Q, Silventoinen K, Eriksson JG, Jousilahti P, Lindström J, Valle TT, Nissinen A, Tuomilehto J: Occupational, commuting, and leisure-time physical activity in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Finnish men and women. Diabetologia. 2003, 46: 322-329.
Tammelin T, Näyhä S, Rintamäki H, Zitting P: Occupational physical activity is related to physical fitness in young workers. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2002, 34: 158-165. 10.1097/00005768-200201000-00024.
Laitinen J, Pietiläinen K, Wadsworth M, Sovio U, Järvelin MR: Predictors of abdominal obesity among 31-y-old men and women born in Northern Finland in 1966. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004, 58: 180-190. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601765.
Statistics Finland: Sosioekonomisen aseman luokitus 1989. 1989, Helsinki, Finland: Käsikirjoja 17, Classification of social status 1989: in Finnish
Statistics Finland: Ammattiluokitus 1987. 1987, Helsinki, Finland: Käsikirjoja 14, Classification of occupations; in Finnish
R Development Core Team: R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Release 2.15.0. 2012, Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.R-project.org, ISBN 3-900051-07-0,
Reeder BA, Chen Y, Mcdonald SM, Angel A, Sweet L: Regional and urban–rural differences in obesity in Canada. Canadian Heart Health Survey Group. Can Med Assoc J. 1997, 57 (Suppl 1): S10-S16.
Peytremann-Bridevaux I, Faeh D, Santos-Eggimann B: Prevalence of overweight and obesity in rural and urban settings in 10 European countries. Prev Med. 2007, 44: 442-446. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.11.011.
Lee IM, Ewing R, Sesso HD: The built environment and physical activity levels: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Am J Prev Med. 2009, 37: 293-298. 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.06.007.
Rundle A, Roux AV, Free LM, Miller D, Neckerman KM, Weiss CC: The urban built environment and obesity in New York City: a multilevel analysis. Am J Health Promot. 2007, 21 (4 Suppl): 326-334.
Zhao Z, Kaestner R: Effects of urban sprawl on obesity. J Health Econ. 2010, 29: 779-787. 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2010.07.006.
Liu GC, Wilson JS, Qi R, Ying J: Green neighborhoods, food retail and childhood overweight: differences by population density. Am J Health Promot. 2007, 21 (4 Suppl): 317-325.
Boehmer TK, Lovegreen SL, Haire-Joshu D, Brownson RC: What constitutes an obesogenic environment in rural communities?. Am J Health Promot. 2006, 20: 411-421. 10.4278/0890-1171-20.6.411.
Giles-Corti B, Macintyre S, Clarkson JP, Pikora T, Donovan RJ: Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity in Perth, Australia. Am J Health Promot. 2003, 18: 93-102. 10.4278/0890-1171-18.1.93.
Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P, Popkin BM: Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics. 2006, 117: 417-424. 10.1542/peds.2005-0058.
Petrella RJ, Kennedy E, Overend TJ: Geographic determinants of healthy lifestyle change in a community-based exercise prescription delivered in family practice. Environ Health Insights. 2008, 1: 51-62.
Yamada I, Brown BB, Smith KR, Zick CD, Kowaleski-Jones L, Fan JX: Mixed land use and obesity: an empirical comparison of alternative land use measures and geographic scales. Prof Geogr. 2012, 64: 157-177. 10.1080/00330124.2011.583592.
Rundle A, Neckerman KM, Freeman L, Lovasi GS, Purciel M, Quinn J, Richards C, Sircar N, Weiss C: Neighborhood food environment and walkability predict obesity in New York City. Environ Health Perspect. 2009, 117: 442-447.
Larson N, Story MT, Nelsin MC: Neighborhood environments: disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009, 36: 74-81. 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.025.
Oreskovic NM, Winickoff JP, Kuhlthau KA, Romm D, Perrin JM: Obesity and the built environment among Massachusetts children. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009, 48: 904-912. 10.1177/0009922809336073.
Bell JF, Wilson JS, Liu GC: Neighborhood greenness and 2-year changes in body mass index of children and youth. Am J Prev Med. 2008, 35: 547-553. 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.07.006.
Nielsen TS, Hansen KB: Do green areas affect health? Results from a Danish survey on the use of green areas and health indicators. Health Place. 2007, 13: 839-850. 10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.02.001.
Smith KR, Brown BB, Yamada I, Kowaleski-Jones L, Zick CD, Fan JX: Walkability and body mass index. Density, design, and new diversity measures. Am J Prev Med. 2008, 35: 237-244. 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.05.028.
Frank LD, Andresen MA, Schmid TL: Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. Am J Prev Med. 2004, 27: 87-96. 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.04.011.
Lopez-Zetina J, Lee H, Friis R: The link between obesity and the built environment. Evidence from an ecological analysis of obesity and vehicle miles of travel in California. Health Place. 2006, 12: 656-664. 10.1016/j.healthplace.2005.09.001.
Pendola R, Gen S: BMI, auto use, and the urban environment in San Francisco. Health Place. 2007, 13: 551-556. 10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.02.004.