Skip to main content

Table 2 Crude associations of body mass index (BMI) and overweight with road distance, residential area type and demographic and lifestyle factors

From: Body mass index and overweight in relation to residence distance and population density: experience from the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966

  BMI (kg/m2) No. (%) overweight (BMI ≥ 25) No. of subjects
Mean SDa
Road distance to commune’s centre (km)     
  0.0–1.9 24.71 4.25 549 (41.2) 1334
  2.0–4.9 24.50 4.20 661 (38.3) 1727
  5.0–9.9 24.45 3.97 449 (38.0) 1183
  10.0–19.9 25.10 4.51 295 (45.2) 652
  20.0–184.0 25.76 4.79 206 (51.4) 401
Residential area type (population density, inhabitants per km 2 )     
  Scattered settlements (1–5) 26.07 5.34 74 (52.1) 142
  Rural areas proper (6–20) 25.35 4.46 200 (45.5) 440
  Transition zones (21–100) 25.22 4.80 292 (43.8) 667
  Built-up areas & suburbs (101–1000) 24.65 4.10 734 (41.1) 1785
  High-rise centres (1000–19192) 24.40 4.06 860 (38.0) 2263
Sex     
  Men 25.25 3.62 1246 (49.6) 2513
  Women 24.22 4.72 914 (32.8) 2784
Marital status     
  Married/cohabiting 24.73 4.10 1550 (41.0) 3779
  Other 24.68 4.70 579 (40.2) 1441
Region of residence     
  City of Oulu 24.52 4.00 439 (39.6) 1109
  Rest of northern Finland 24.94 4.41 1458 (42.7) 3416
  Helsinki metropolitan area 23.99 3.88 263 (34.1) 772
Occupational class     
  Office work 24.40 4.32 749 (36.6) 2044
  Industry 25.21 3.98 585 (49.2) 1190
  Agriculture 25.25 4.45 146 (44.6) 327
  Health/social work 24.37 4.44 283 (35.2) 805
  Business 24.64 3.99 165 (40.8) 404
Socio-economic group     
  Entrepreneurs 25.32 4.26 164 (45.9) 357
  Higher administrative 24.11 3.57 348 (35.3) 985
  Lower administrative 24.49 4.40 697 (37.2) 1875
  Blue collar workers 25.19 4.35 797 (47.0) 1696
  Other 24.57 4.54 105 (38.6) 272
Education     
  University 23.84 3.55 160 (30.6) 523
  College/polytechnic 24.41 3.98 704 (38.4) 1831
  Vocational school/course 25.14 4.34 853 (45.6) 1869
  No vocational school 24.87 4.79 419 (41.0) 1023
Occupational physical activity     
  Sedentary work 24.54 4.10 639 (39.4) 1620
  Light standing or moving work 24.30 3.97 242 (36.4) 664
  Medium heavy moving work 24.65 3.87 350 (41.2) 850
  Heavy/very heavy manual work 25.17 4.19 363 (45.8) 793
Leisure-time physical activity (quintiles, MET-hours per week)     
  0–2.7 25.26 4.72 482 (47.3) 1019
  2.8–7.7 24.92 4.54 441 (42.3) 1042
  7.8–14.1 24.50 4.06 400 (38.3) 1044
  14.2–25.0 24.39 3.92 385 (37.5) 1027
  25.1–84.0 24.37 3.82 390 (37.8) 1031
Diet     
  Healthy 24.66 4.26 1876 (40.0) 4694
  Unhealthy 25.14 4.45 284 (47.1) 603
Alcohol consumption (quartiles, grams per day)     
  0.0–1.0 24.81 5.05 499 (38.9) 1284
  1.1–4.0 24.48 4.15 486 (38.0) 1278
  4.1–10.4 24.40 3.86 491 (37.7) 1302
  10.5–531 25.17 3.83 628 (48.4) 1297
Smoking     
  On 5–7 days/week 24.85 4.50 613 (42.5) 1441
  On 4 days/week at most 25.03 4.12 305 (44.2) 690
  Not at all 24.57 4.17 1217 (39.0) 3118
All 24.71 4.26 2160 (40.8) 5297
  1. a standard deviation.