Braveman P, Gruskin S: Defining equity in health. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003, 57 (4): 254-258. 10.1136/jech.57.4.254.
Lawn JE, Cousens S, Zupan J: 4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why?. Lancet. 2005, 365 (9462): 891-900. 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71048-5.
Ronsmans C, Graham WJ: Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why. Lancet. 2006, 368 (9542): 1189-1200. 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69380-X.
Wang L: Health outcomes in poor countries and policy options: empirical findings from Demographic and Health Surveys. 2002, Washington, DC: World Bank
Ensor T, Cooper S: Overcoming barriers to health service access: influencing the demand side. Health Policy Plan. 2004, 19 (2): 69-79. 10.1093/heapol/czh009.
Victora CG, Wagstaff A, Schellenberg JA, Gwatkin D, Claeson M, Habicht J-P: Applying an equity lens to child health and mortality: more of the same is not enough. Lancet. 2003, 362 (9379): 233-241. 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13917-7.
Filmer D: Fever and its treatment among the more and less poor in sub-Saharan Africa. Health Policy Plan. 2005, 20 (6): 337-346. 10.1093/heapol/czi043.
Wagstaff A, Bustreo F, Bryce J, Claeson M, the Who-World Bank Child H, Poverty Working G: Child health: reaching the poor. Am J Public Health. 2004, 94 (5): 726-736. 10.2105/AJPH.94.5.726.
Sastry N: Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in developing countries: the case of child survival in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Demography. 2004, 41 (3): 443-464. 10.1353/dem.2004.0027.
Darmstadt GL, Bhutta ZA, Cousens S, Adam T, Walker N, de Bernis L: Evidence-based, cost-effective interventions: how many newborn babies can we save?. Lancet. 2005, 365 (9463): 977-988. 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71088-6.
Tudor Hart J: The inverse care Law. Lancet. 1971, 297 (7696): 405-412. 10.1016/S0140-6736(71)92410-X.
United Nations Children’s Fund: State of the World’s Children 2009: Maternal and Newborn Health. 2009, New York: UNICEF, 2008-
Bhutta ZA, Chopra M, Axelson H, Berman P, Boerma T, Bryce J, Bustreo F, Cavagnero E, Cometto G, Daelmans B, et al: Countdown to 2015 decade report (2000–10): taking stock of maternal, newborn, and child survival. Lancet. 2010, 375 (9730): 2032-2044. 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60678-2.
Houweling TAJ, Ronsmans C, Campbell OMR, Kunst AE: Huge poor-rich inequalities in maternity care: an international comparative study of maternity and child care in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2007, 85 (10): 745-754. 10.2471/BLT.06.038588.
Knippenberg R, Lawn JE, Darmstadt GL, Begkoyian G, Fogstad H, Walelign N, Paul VK: Systematic scaling up of neonatal care in countries. Lancet. 2005, 365 (9464): 1087-1098.
Boerma JT, Bryce J, Kinfu Y, et al: Mind the gap: equity and trends in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health services in 54 Countdown countries. Lancet. 2008, 371 (9620): 1259-1267.
Haines A, Sanders D, Lehmann U, Rowe AK, Lawn JE, Jan S, Walker DG, Bhutta Z: Achieving child survival goals: potential contribution of community health workers. Lancet. 2007, 369 (9579): 2121-2131. 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60325-0.
UNICEF: Narrowing the Gaps to Meet the Goals. 2010, New York, NY: UNICEF
Kumar V, Mohanty S, Kumar A, Misra RP, Santosham M, Awasthi S, Baqui AH, Singh P, Singh V, Ahuja RC, et al: Effect of community-based behaviour change management on neonatal mortality in Shivgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008, 372 (9644): 1151-1162. 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61483-X.
Baqui AH, El-Arifeen S, Darmstadt GL, Ahmed S, Williams EK, Seraji HR, Mannan I, Rahman SM, Shah R, Saha SK, et al: Effect of community-based newborn-care intervention package implemented through two service-delivery strategies in Sylhet district, Bangladesh: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008, 371 (9628): 1936-1944. 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60835-1.
Bhutta ZA, Soofi S, Cousens S, Mohammad S, Memon ZA, Ali I, Feroze A, Raza F, Khan A, Wall S, et al: Improvement of perinatal and newborn care in rural Pakistan through community-based strategies: a cluster-randomised effectiveness trial. Lancet. 2011, 377 (9763): 403-412. 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62274-X.
Kirkwood BR, Manu A, Tawiah-Agyemang C, ten Asbroek G, Gyan T, Weobong B, Lewandowski RE, Soremekun S, Danso S, Pitt C, et al: NEWHINTS cluster randomised trial to evaluate the impact on neonatal mortality in rural Ghana of routine home visits to provide a package of essential newborn care interventions in the third trimester of pregnancy and the first week of life: trial protocol. Trials. 2010, 11: 58-10.1186/1745-6215-11-58.
Waiswa P, Peterson SS, Namazzi G, Ekirapa EK, Naikoba S, Byaruhanga R, Kiguli J, Kallander K, Tagoola A, Nakakeeto M: The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST): an effectiveness study on improving newborn health and survival in rural Uganda through a community-based intervention linked to health facilities-study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2012, 13 (1): 213-10.1186/1745-6215-13-213.
Tomlinson M, Doherty T, Jackson D, Lawn JE, Ijumba P, Colvin M, Nkonki L, Daviaud E, Goga A, Sanders D: An effectiveness study of an integrated, community-based package for maternal, newborn, child and HIV care in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2011, 12 (1): 236-10.1186/1745-6215-12-236.
Saving Newborn Lives: Saving Newborn Lives: Program Brief. 2011, Washington, DC: Save the Children
WHO/UNICEF: Home visits for the newborn child: a strategy to improve survival. 2009, Geneva/New York: WHO/UNICEF
Malawi National Statistics Office and MEASURE DHS-ICF Macro: Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010. 2011, Zomba: NSO and ICF Macro
National Statistics Office Malawi: 2008 Population and Housing Census: Preliminary Report. 2008, Government of Malawi: Zomba, Malawi
World Bank: World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change. 2010, Washington, DC: World Bank
UNDP: Human Development Report. 2010, New York: UNDP
Malawi Ministry of Health: A Joint Programme of Work for a Health Sector-Wide Approach (SWAP) 2004–2010. 2004, Lilongwe: Government of Malawi
O’Neil M, Jarrah Z, Nkosi L, Collins D, Perry C, Jackson J, Kuchande H, Mlambala A: Evaluation of Malawi’s Emergency Human Resources Program. 2010, Cambridge, MA: Management Sciences for Health and DFID
Health, United States. http://www.statehealthfacts.org/,
Gwatkin D, Kataika E, Cardinal I, Kemp J: Malawi’s Health SWAp: Bringing essential services closer to the poor?. Malawi Med J. 2007, 18 (1): 1-
Nsona H, Mtimuni A, Daelmans B, Callaghan-Koru JA, Gilroy K, Mgalula L, Kachule T, Zamasiya T: Scaling-up integrated community case management of childhood illness: update from Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012, In Press
Sarriot E, WInch P, Weiss WM, Wagman J: Methodology and Sampling Issues for KPC Surveys. 1999, Calverton, MD: ORC Macro
Bennett S, Woods T, Liyanage WM, Smith DL: A simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys of health in developing countries. World Health Stat Q. 1991, 44 (3): 98-106.
World Health Organization: Training for Mid-level Managers: The EPI Coverage Survey. 1991, Geneva: WHO Expanded Program on Immunization
StataCorp: Stata Survey Data Reference Manual. 2009, College Station, TX: Stata Press, 11:
Wagstaff A, Doorslaer E: Overall versus socioeconomic health inequality: a measurement framework and two empirical illustrations. Health Econ. 2004, 13 (3): 297-301. 10.1002/hec.822.
Wagstaff A: Socioeconomic inequalities in child mortality: comparisons across nine developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2000, 78 (1): 19-29.
Victora CG, Barros AJD, Axelson H, Bhutta ZA, Chopra M, França GVA, Kerber K, Kirkwood BR, Newby H, Ronsmans C: How changes in coverage affect equity in maternal and child health interventions in 35 Countdown to 2015 countries: an analysis of national surveys. Lancet. 2012, 380 (9848): 1149-1156. 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61427-5.
Malawi National Statistics Office and ORC Macro: Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2004. 2005, Calverton, MD: ORC Macro
Habicht JP, Victora CG, Vaughan JP: Evaluation designs for adequacy, plausibility and probability of public health programme performance and impact. Int J Epidemiol. 1999, 28 (1): 10-18. 10.1093/ije/28.1.10.
Joseph A: Are traditional birth attendants good for improving maternal and perinatal health? Yes. BMJ. 2011, 342: d3310-10.1136/bmj.d3310.
Fotso JC, Mukiira C: Perceived quality of and access to care among poor urban women in Kenya and their utilization of delivery care: harnessing the potential of private clinics?. Health Policy Plan. 2011, 27 (6): 505-515.
Kiguli J, Ekirapa-Kiracho E, Okui O, Mutebi A, MacGregor H, Pariyo GW: Increasing access to quality health care for the poor: community perceptions on quality care in Uganda. Patient Preference Adherence. 2009, 3: 77-
Duong DV, Binns CW, Lee AH: Utilization of delivery services at the primary health care level in rural Vietnam. Soc Sci Med. 2004, 59 (12): 2585-2595. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.04.007.
Amooti-Kaguna B, Nuwaha F: Factors influencing choice of delivery sites in Rakai district of Uganda. Soc Sci Med. 2000, 50 (2): 203-213. 10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00275-0.
Saving Newborn Lives: Malawi Health Services Assessment Finding. 2012, Washington, DC: Save the Children
Bishai D, Suzuki E, McQuestion M, Chakraborty J, Koenig M: The role of public health programmes in reducing socioeconomic inequities in childhood immunization coverage. Health Policy Plan. 2002, 17 (4): 412-419. 10.1093/heapol/17.4.412.
Ali M, Emch M, Tofail F, Baqui AH: Implications of health care provision on acute lower respiratory infection mortality in Bangladeshi children. Soc Sci Med. 2001, 52 (2): 267-277. 10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00120-9.
Littrell M, Moukam LV, Libite R, Youmba JC, Baugh G: Narrowing the treatment gap with equitable access: mid-term outcomes of a community case management program in Cameroon. Health Policy Plan. 2012, 28 (7): 705-716.
Nsungwa-Sabiiti J, Peterson S, Pariyo G, Ogwal-Okeng J, Petzold MG, Tomson G: Home-based management of fever and malaria treatment practices in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007, 101 (12): 1199-1207. 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.08.005.
Oxford Policy Management: External Evaluation of the Lady Health Worker Programme, Pakistan: Quantitative Survey Report. 2009, Oxford, UK: Oxford Policy Management
Callaghan J: Evaluating the scale-up of community case management in Malawi: Health systems supports, health worker attitudes, and equity of service provision. Dissertation. 2011, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health
CIA: The World Fact Book. 2011, Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency
Ravallion M, Chen S, Sangraula P: New evidence on the urbanization of global poverty. Popul Dev Rev. 2007, 33 (4): 667-701. 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00193.x.
Marsh DR, Gilroy KE, Van de Weerdt R, Wansi E, Qazi S: Community case management of pneumonia: at a tipping point?. Bull World Health Organ. 2008, 86 (5): 381-389. 10.2471/BLT.07.048462.
Bhutta ZA, Lassi ZS, Pariyo G, Huicho L: Global Experience of Community Health Workers for Delivery of Health Related Millennium Development Goals: A Systematic Review, Country Case Studies, and Recommendations for Integration into National Health Systems. 2010, Geneva: Global Health Workforce Alliance and World Health Organization
Ad S, Tiedje KE, Recht J, Bjelic I, Hamer DH: Community case management of childhood illnesses: policy and implementation in Countdown to 2015 countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2012, 90: 183-190. 10.2471/BLT.11.093989.
Nsona H, Mtimuni A, Daelmans B, Callaghan-Koru JA, Gilroy K, Mgalula L, Kachule T, Zamasiya T: Scaling up integrated community case management of childhood illness: update from Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012, 87 (5 Suppl): 54-60. 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0759.
Bemelmans M, Van Den Akker T, Ford N, Philips M, Zachariah R, Harries A, Schouten E, Hermann K, Mwagomba B, Massaquoi M: Providing universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thyolo, Malawi through task shifting and decentralization of HIV/AIDS care. Trop Med Int Health. 2010, 15 (12): 1413-1420. 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02649.x.