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Table 5 Coverage of health behaviors, by wealth quartile

From: Contribution of community-based newborn health promotion to reducing inequities in healthy newborn care practices and knowledge: evidence of improvement from a three-district pilot program in Malawi

  Baseline Endline Change in CI
Maternal and newborn care at facility
At least 1 ANC visit with a skilled provider    
Overall 89.3 94.8
Poorest quartile 83.3 93.3
2nd quartile 91.9 92.9
3rd quartile 85.8 96.9
Least poor quartile 96.5 96.0
  0.0258 0.0058 -0.0200
Concentration index (95% confidence interval) (0.0068, 0.0448) (-0.0057, 0.0173) (-0.0420, 0.0019)
Delivery at a health facility    
Overall 70.6 91.6
Poorest quartile 57.2 88.4
2nd quartile 71.0 90.7
3rd quartile 69.6 94.2
Least poor quartile 85.3 92.9
  0.0721 0.0131 -0.0591
Concentration index (95% confidence interval) (0.0347, 0.1100) (0.0004, 0.0257) (-0.0981, -0.0201)
Newborn care practices
Breastfeeding within the first hour of birth*    
Overall 74.2 94.0  
Poorest quartile 69.6 92.4  
2nd quartile 69.6 95.1  
3rd quartile 78.9 94.2  
Least poor quartile 79.5 94.2  
  0.0392 0.0013 -0.0379
Concentration index (95% confidence interval) (0.0054, 0.0729) (-0.0096, 0.0122) (-0.0729, -0.0029)
Delay in bathing of at least 6 hours*    
Overall 65.4 81.2  
Poorest quartile 65.6 84.0  
2nd quartile 56.0 86.3  
3rd quartile 66.0 77.2  
Least poor quartile 73.1 77.3  
  0.0153 -0.0252 -0.0405
Concentration index (95% confidence interval) (-0.0355, 0.0660) (-0.0465, -0.0038) (-0.0948, -0.0139)
Skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby immediately after birth**    
Overall NA 66.1  
Poorest quartile NA 55.6  
2nd quartile NA 69.5  
3rd quartile NA 68.3  
Least poor quartile NA 71.1  
  NA 0.0492 NA
Concentration index (95% confidence interval)   (0.0189, 0.0796)  
  1. *Observations with missing data excluded from the indicator calculation at baseline. For breastfeeding within the first hour, 17.4% of observations were missing data. For delayed bathing, 9.7% of observations were missing data. **Not measured at baseline.