The top 10 causes of death-WHO Fact Sheet No. 310. [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index.html]
Members WG, Rosamond W, Flegal K, Furie K, Go A, Greenlund K, Haase N, Hailpern SM, Ho M, Howard V, et al: Heart disease and stroke statistics-2008 update. Circulation. 2008, 117: e25-e146.
2010 statistics of causes of death. Department of Health, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan). [http://www.doh.gov.tw/CHT2006/DM/DM2_2.aspx?now_fod_list_no=11962&class_no=440&level_no=4]
Lee C-H, Ko AM-S, Warnakulasuriya S, Yin B-L, Sunarjo Zain RB, Ibrahim SO, Liu Z-W, Li W-H, Zhang S-S, et al: Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia. Int J Cancer. 2011, 129: 1741-1751. 10.1002/ijc.25809.
Lin WY, Pi-Sunyer FX, Liu CS, Li TC, Li CI, Huang CY, Lin CC: Betel nut chewing is strongly associated with general and central obesity in Chinese male middle-aged adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009, 17: 1247-1254.
Guh JY, Chuang LY, Chen HC: Betel-quid use is associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006, 83: 1313-1320.
Tseng CH: Betel nut chewing is associated with hypertension in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. Hypertens Res. 2008, 31: 417-423. 10.1291/hypres.31.417.
Lan TY, Chang WC, Tsai YJ, Chuang YL, Lin HS, Tai TY: Areca nut chewing and mortality in an elderly cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007, 165: 677-683. 10.1093/aje/kwk056.
Lin WY, Chiu TY, Lee LT, Lin CC, Huang CY, Huang KC: Betel nut chewing is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008, 87: 1204-1211.
Yen AM, Chen LS, Chiu YH, Boucher BJ, Chen TH: A prospective community-population-registry based cohort study of the association between betel-quid chewing and cardiovascular disease in men in Taiwan (KCIS no. 19). Am J Clin Nutr. 2008, 87: 70-78.
Chu NS: Cardiovascular responses to betel chewing. J Formos Med Assoc. 1993, 92: 835-837.
Di Carli M, Czernin J, Hoh CK, Gerbaudo VH, Brunken RC, Huang S-C, Phelps ME, Schelbert HR: Relation among stenosis severity, myocardial blood flow, and flow reserve in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1995, 91: 1944-1951.
Uren NG, Melin JA, De Bruyne B, Wijns W, Baudhuin T, Camici PG: Relation between myocardial blood flow and the severity of coronary-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1994, 330: 1782-1788. 10.1056/NEJM199406233302503.
Lin MY, Chen MC, Wu IC, Wu DC, Cheng YJ, Wu CC, Chai CY, Lee JM, Wu MT: Areca users in combination with tobacco and alcohol use are associated with younger age of diagnosed esophageal cancer in Taiwanese men. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e25347-10.1371/journal.pone.0025347.
Lee C-H, Lee J-M, Wu D-C, Hsu H-K, Kao E-L, Huang H-L, Wang T-N, Huang M-C, Wu M-T: Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan. Int J Cancer. 2005, 113: 475-482. 10.1002/ijc.20619.
Betel-quid and Areca-nut Chewing and Some Areca-nut-derived Nitrosamines. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 2004, Lyon, France: World Health Organization International Agency For Research On Cancer, 85:
Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S: Confidence interval estimation of interaction. Epidemiology. 1992, 3: 452-456. 10.1097/00001648-199209000-00012.
Guh JY, Chen HC, Tsai JF, Chuang LY: Betel-quid use is associated with heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007, 85: 1229-1235.
Ko YC, Chiang TA, Chang SJ, Hsieh SF: Prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan and related sociodemographic factors. J Oral Pathol Med. 1992, 21: 261-264. 10.1111/j.1600-0714.1992.tb01007.x.
Libby P, Theroux P: Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2005, 111: 3481-3488. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.537878.
Yen AM, Chiu YH, Chen LS, Wu HM, Huang CC, Boucher BJ, Chen TH: A population-based study of the association between betel-quid chewing and the metabolic syndrome in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006, 83: 1153-1160.
Warnakulasuriya S: Areca nut use following migration and its consequences. Addict Biol. 2002, 7: 127-132. 10.1080/13556210120091491.
Owen PL, Matainaho T, Sirois M, Johns T: Endothelial cytoprotection from oxidized LDL by some crude melanesian plant extracts is not related to their antioxidant capacity. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2007, 21: 231-242. 10.1002/jbt.20186.
Chang MC, Uang BJ, Tsai CY, Wu HL, Lin BR, Lee CS, Chen YJ, Chang CH, Tsai YL, Kao CJ, Jeng JH: Hydroxychavicol, a novel betel leaf component, inhibits platelet aggregation by suppression of cyclooxygenase, thromboxane production and calcium mobilization. Br J Pharmacol. 2007, 152: 73-82. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707367.
Runnie I, Salleh MN, Mohamed S, Head RJ, Abeywardena MY: Vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular bed. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004, 92: 311-316. 10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.019.
Ali SM MP: Preliminary pharmacological and anthelmintic studies of the essential oil of piper betel L. Indian Journal of Pharmacy. 1970, 32: 132-133.
Jeng J-H, Chen S-Y, Liao C-H, Tung Y-Y, Lin B-R, Hahn L-J, Chang M-C: Modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002, 32: 860-871. 10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00749-9.
Alexander RW: Inflammation and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 1994, 331: 468-469. 10.1056/NEJM199408183310709.
Tsai C-H, Chou M-Y, Chang Y-C: The up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: a possible role in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003, 32: 146-153. 10.1034/j.1600-0714.2003.00004.x.
Chang Y-C, Yang S-F, Tai K-W, Chou M-Y, Hsieh Y-S: Increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression and inhibition of gelatinase a activity in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline as possible mechanisms for oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Oncol. 2002, 38: 195-200. 10.1016/S1368-8375(01)00045-8.
Iverson SL, Hu LQ, Vukomanovic V, Bolton JL: The influence of the p-alkyl substituent on the isomerization of o-quinones to p-quinone methides: potential bioactivation mechanism for catechols. Chem Res Toxicol. 1995, 8: 537-544. 10.1021/tx00046a007.
Choudhary D, Kale RK: Antioxidant and non-toxic properties of Piper betle leaf extract: in vitro and in vivo studies. Phytother Res. 2002, 16: 461-466. 10.1002/ptr.1015.
Chang MC, Uang BJ, Wu HL, Lee JJ, Hahn LJ, Jeng JH: Inducing the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of oral KB carcinoma cells by hydroxychavicol: roles of glutathione and reactive oxygen species. Br J Pharmacol. 2002, 135: 619-630. 10.1038/sj.bjp.0704492.
Krol ES, Bolton JL: Oxidation of 4-alkylphenols and catechols by tyrosinase: ortho-substituents alter the mechanism of quinoid formation. Chem Biol Interact. 1997, 104: 11-27. 10.1016/S0009-2797(97)03763-0.
Lee M-J, Hsu J-D, Lin C-L, Lin M-H, Yuan S-C, Wang C-J: Induction of epidermal proliferation and expressions of PKC and NF-[kappa]B by betel quid extracts in mouse: the role of lime-piper additives in betel quid. Chem Biol Interact. 2002, 140: 35-48. 10.1016/S0009-2797(01)00264-2.
Ni WF, Tsai CH, Yang SF, Chang YC: Elevated expression of NF-kappaB in oral submucous fibrosis-evidence for NF-kappaB induction by safrole in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts. Oral Oncol. 2007, 43: 557-562. 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2006.06.007.
Chang LY, Wan HC, Lai YL, Kuo YF, Liu TY, Chen YT, Hung SL: Areca nut extracts increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Periodontal Res. 2009, 44: 175-183. 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2008.01104.x.