UNICEF/WHO. Progress on sanitation and drinking water. Update and MDG Assessment. 2015 [cited 2017 Apr 25]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_82419.html.
Mills JE, Cumming O, editors. The impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on key health and social outcomes: Review of evidence. UNICEF [Internet]. 2016 Jun [cited 2017 Apr 25] Available from: https://www.unicef.org/wash/files/The_Impact_of_WASH_on_Key_Social_and_Health_Outcomes_Review_of_Evidence.pdf.
Fewtrell L, Kaufmann RB, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L, Colford JM Jr. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5(1):42–52.
Arnold BF, Colford JM. Treating water with cholorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76(2):354–64.
Waddington H, Snilstveit B, White H, Fewtrell L. Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to combat childhood diarrhea in developing countries. New Delhi, India: 3ie; 2009 Aug [cited 2017 Apr 25] Available from: http://www.3ieimpact.org/evidence/systematic-reviews/details/23/.
Wolf J, Prüss-Ustün A, Cumming O, Bartram J, Bonjour S, Cairncross S, et al. Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrheal disease in low- and middle income settings: systematic review and meta-regression. Tropical Med Int Health. 2014;19(8):928–42.
Cairncross S, Hunt C, Boisson S, Bostoen K, Curtis V, Fung ICH, et al. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhea. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(Suppl 1):i193–205.
Clasen TF, Alexander KT, Sinclair D, Boisson S, Peletz R, Chang HH, et al. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD004794. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004794.pub3.
Ejemot-Nwadiaro RI, Ehiri JE, Arikpo D, Meremikwu MM, Critchley JA. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD004265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004265.pub3.
Clasen TF, Bostoen K, Schmidt WP, Boisson S, Fung ICH, Jenkins MW, et al. Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD007180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007180.pub2.
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Evidence Gap Map. 2015 [cited 2017 Apr 25]. Available from: http://gapmaps.3ieimpact.org/evidence-maps/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-evidence-gap-map.
Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.3.0 (updated October 2015). The Cochrane Collaboration. 2015 [cited 2017 Apr 25]. Available from: http://training.cochrane.org/handbook.
Walker N, Fischer-Walker C, Bryce J, Bahl R, Cousens S. Effects CRGoI: Standards for CHERG reviews of intervention effects on child survival. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(Suppl 1):i21–31.
Review Manager (RevMan) In., 5.3 edn: Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; 2014.
Zhang J, Yu KF. What’s the relative risk? A method of correcting the odds ratio in cohort studies of common outcomes. JAMA. 1998;280(19):1690–1.
Borenstein M, Larry V.H, Julian PT H, Rothstein HR. Introduction to Meta-Analysis: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2009.
Alam N, Wojtyniak B, Henry FJ, Rahaman MM. Mothers' personal and domestic hygiene and diarrhea incidence in young children in rural Bangladesh. Int J Epidemiol. 1989;18(1):242–7.
Opryszko MC, Majeed SW, Hansen PM, Myers JA, Baba D, Thompson RE, Burnham G. Water and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhea in rural Afghanistan: a randomized controlled study. J Water Health. 2010;8(4):687–702.
Jensen PK, Ensink JHJ, Jayasinghe G, van der Hoek W, Cairncross S, Dalsgaard A. Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhea in a village in Pakistan. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21(1):26–31.
Ryder RW, Reeves WC, Singh N, Hall CB, Kapikian AZ, Gomez B, et al. The childhood health effects of an improved water supply system on a remote Panamanian island. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1985;34(5):921–4.
Semenza JC, Roberts L, Henderson A, Bogan J, Rubin CH. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;59(6):941–6.
Fabiszewski de Aceituno AM, Stauber CE, Walters AR, Meza Sanchez RE, Sobsey MD. A randomized controlled trial of the plastic-housing BioSand filter and its impact on diarrheal disease in Copan. Honduras Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86(6):913–21.
Boisson S, Schmidt WP, Berhanu T, Gezahegn H, Clasen T. Randomized controlled trial in rural Ethiopia to assess a portable water treatment device. Environmental science & technology. 2009;43(15):5934–9.
Boisson S, Kiyombo M, Sthreshley L, Tumba S, Makambo J, Clasen T. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS One. 2010;5(9):e12613.
Brown J, Sobsey M, Proum S. Improving Household Drinking Water Quality Use of Ceramic Water Filters in Cambodia. 2007 [cited 2017 Apr 25]. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/eapro/WSP_UNICEF_FN_CWP_Final.pdf.
Brown J, Sobsey MD, Loomis D. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier. T Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(3):394–400.
Clasen TF, Brown J, Collin S, Suntura O, Cairncross S. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70(6):651–7.
Clasen T, Garcia Parra G, Boisson S, Collin S. Household-based ceramic water filters for the prevention of diarrhea: a randomized, controlled trial of a pilot program in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73(4):790–5.
Du Preez M, Conroy RM, Wright JA, Moyo S, Potgieter N, Gundry SW. Use of ceramic water filtration in the prevention of diarrheal disease: a randomized controlled trial in rural South Africa and Zimbabwe. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79(5):696–701.
Lindquist ED, George CM, Perin J, Neiswender de Calani KJ, Norman WR, Davis TP, et al. A cluster randomized controlled trial to reduce childhood diarrhea using hollow fiber water filter and/or hygiene-sanitation educational interventions. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(1):190–7.
Stauber CE, Ortiz GM, Loomis DP, Sobsey MD. A randomized controlled trial of the concrete biosand filter and its impact on diarrheal disease in Bonao, Dominican Republic. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80(2):286–93.
Stauber CE, Kominek B, Liang KR, Osman MK, Sobsey MD. Evaluation of the impact of the plastic BioSand filter on health and drinking water quality in rural tamale, Ghana. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9(11):3806–23.
Stauber CE, Printy ER, McCarty FA, Liang KR, Sobsey MD. Cluster randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand water filter in Cambodia. Environmental science & technology. 2012;46(2):722–8.
Tiwari SS, Schmidt WP, Darby J, Kariuki ZG, Jenkins MW. Intermittent slow sand filtration for preventing diarrhea among children in Kenyan households using unimproved water sources: randomized controlled trial. Tropical Med Int Health. 2009;14(11):1374–82.
Boisson S, Stevenson M, Shapiro L, Kumar V, Singh LP, Ward D, et al. Effect of household-based drinking water chlorination on diarrhea among children under five in Orissa, India: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2013;10(8):e1001497.
Chiller TM, Mendoza CE, Lopez MB, Alvarez M, Hoekstra RM, Keswick BH, et al. Reducing diarrhea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84(1):28–35.
Crump JA, Otieno PO, Slutsker L, Keswick BH, Rosen DH, Hoekstra RM, et al. Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2005;331(7515):478.
du Preez M, Conroy RM, Ligondo S, Hennessy J, Elmore-Meegan M, Soita A, et al. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years. Environmental science & technology. 2011;45(21):9315–23.
Harshfield E, Lantagne D, Turbes A, Null C. Evaluating the sustained health impact of household chlorination of drinking water in rural Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87(5):786–95.
Jain S, Sahanoon OK, Blanton E, Schmitz A, Wannemuehler KA, Hoekstra RM, et al. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets for routine treatment of household drinking water in periurban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82(1):16–22.
Kirchhoff LV, McClelland KE, Do Carmo Pinho M, Araujo JG, de Sousa MA, Guerrant RL. Feasibility and efficacy of in-home water chlorination in rural North-eastern Brazil. J Hyg. 1985;94(2):173–80.
Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Painter J, Altaf A, Billhimer W, Keswick B, et al. Combining drinking water treatment and hand washing for diarrhea prevention, a cluster randomised controlled trial. Tropical Med Int Health. 2006;11(4):479–89.
Mahfouz AA, Abdel-Moneim M, Al-Erian RA, al-Amari OM. Impact of chlorination of water in domestic storage tanks on childhood diarrhea: a community trial in the rural areas of Saudi Arabia. J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;98(2):126–30.
McGuigan KG, Samaiyar P, du Preez M, Conroy RM. High compliance randomized controlled field trial of solar disinfection of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhea in rural Cambodia. Environmental science & technology. 2011;45(18):7862–7.
Mengistie B, Berhane Y, Worku A. Household water chlorination reduces incidence of diarrhea among under-five children in rural Ethiopia: a cluster randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e77887.
Mausezahl D, Christen A, Pacheco GD, Tellez FA, Iriarte M, Zapata ME, et al. Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) to reduce childhood diarrhea in rural Bolivia: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2009;6(8):e1000125.
Quick RE, Venczel LV, Mintz ED, Soleto L, Aparicio J, Gironaz M, et al. Diarrhea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy. Epidemiol Infect. 1999;122(1):83–90.
Rai B, Pal R, Kar S, Tsering DC. Solar disinfection improves drinking water quality to prevent diarrhea in under-five children in sikkim. India J Glob Infect Dis. 2010;2(3):221–5.
Reller ME, Mendoza CE, Lopez MB, Alvarez M, Hoekstra RM, Olson CA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of household-based flocculant-disinfectant drinking water treatment for diarrhea prevention in rural Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69(4):411–9.
Rose A, Roy S, Abraham V, Holmgren G, George K, Balraj V, et al. Solar disinfection of water for diarrheal prevention in southern India. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(2):139–41.
Sobsey MD, Handzel T, Venczel L. Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease. Water Sci Technol. 2003;47(3):221–8.
Aung Myo H, Thein H. Prevention of diarrhea and dysentery by hand washing. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83(1):128–31.
Langford R, Lunn P, Panter-Brick C. Hand-washing, subclinical infections, and growth: a longitudinal evaluation of an intervention in Nepali slums. Am J Hum Biol. 2011;23(5):621–9.
Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Painter J, Altaf A, Billhimer WL, Hoekstra RM. Effect of intensive handwashing promotion on childhood diarrhea in high-risk communities in Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291(21):2547–54.
Nicholson JA, Naeeni M, Hoptroff M, Matheson JR, Roberts AJ, Taylor D, et al. An investigation of the effects of a hand washing intervention on health outcomes and school absence using a randomised trial in Indian urban communities. Tropical Med Int Health. 2014;19(3):284–92.
Shahid NS, Greenough WB 3rd, Samadi AR, Huq MI, Rahman N. Hand washing with soap reduces diarrhea and spread of bacterial pathogens in a Bangladesh village. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1996;14(2):85–9.
Sircar BK, Sengupta PG, Mondal SK, Gupta DN, Saha NC, Ghosh S, et al. Effect of handwashing on the incidence of diarrhea in a Calcutta slum. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1987;5(2):112–4.
KMA, Hoque BA, Hasan KZ, Patwary MY, SRA H, Rahman MM, et al. Reduction in diarrheal diseases in children in rural Bangladesh by environmental and behavioural modifications. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990;84(3):433–8.
Garrett V, Ogutu P, Mabonga P, Ombeki S, Mwaki A, Aluoch G, et al. Diarrhea prevention in a high-risk rural Kenyan population through point-of-use chlorination, safe water storage, sanitation, and rainwater harvesting. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136(11):1463–71.
Huttly SR, Blum D, Kirkwood BR, Emeh RN, Okeke N, Ajala M, et al. The Imo state (Nigeria) drinking water supply and sanitation project, 2: impact on dracunculiasis, diarrhea and nutritional status. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990;84(2):316–21.
Hu X-R, Liu G, Liu S-P, Yan-Xin H, Zhang X-M, Fan YY, et al. [Field evaluation of the effect of diarrhea control of methanogenesis treatment of human and animal faeces and rubbish of cellulose nature in the rural areas of Xiang Cheng]. Henan Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi [Henan Journal of Preventative Medicine]. 1988;1988:11–13.
Messou E, Sangare SV, Josseran R, Le Corre C, Guelain J. Effect of hygiene and water sanitation and oral rehydration on diarrhea and mortality of children children less than five years old in the south of Ivory Coast. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1997;90(1):44–7.
Rubenstein A, Boyle J, Odoroff CL, Kunitz SJ. Effect of improved sanitary facilities on infant diarrhea in a Hopi village. Public Health Rep. 1969;84(12):1093–7.
Clasen T, Boisson S, Routray P, Torondel B, Bell M, Cumming O, Ensink J, et al. Effectiveness of a rural sanitation programme on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth infection, and child malnutrition in Odisha, India: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Glob Health. 2014;2(11):e645–53.
The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial Team. The sanitation hygiene infant nutrition efficacy (SHINE) trial: rationle, design, and methods. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(Supp7):S685–702.