Open Access

Erratum to: Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

  • Katherine L Downing1Email author,
  • Trina Hinkley1,
  • Jo Salmon1,
  • Jill A Hnatiuk2 and
  • Kylie D Hesketh1
BMC Public HealthBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted201717:367

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4276-x

Received: 19 April 2017

Accepted: 19 April 2017

Published: 28 April 2017

The original article was published in BMC Public Health 2017 17:285

Erratum

Following publication of this article [1], it has come to our attention that the formatting in Tables 1 and 2 has affected the alignment in such a way that some of the data and categories are difficult to read. The original article has been updated and the correct versions of the tables can also be viewed below.
Table 1

Individual regression modelsa for all potential correlates of screen time and sedentary time for boys and girls

Variable

Screen time mins/day

Sedentary time mins/day

Boys (n=504)

Girls (n=433)

Boys (n=394)

Girls (n=323)

% or mean (SD)b

β (95% CI)

% or mean (SD)b

β (95% CI)

% or mean (SD)b

β (95% CI)

% or mean (SD)b

β (95% CI)

Individual level

Demographic and family profile

Child disability/poor health

10.3%

4.57 (-17.79, 26.93)

5.6%

39.18 (-4.82, 83.18)

9.9%

-10.93 (-21.99, 0.12)

5.6%

14.38 (0.64, 28.13)

Child’s birth parents live together

86.9%

-5.90 (-30.42, 18.63)

89.3%

-10.91 (-40.22, 18.40)

88.1%

9.71 (-0.63, 20.05)

90.0%

-1.60 (-14.50, 11.30)

Child sleep duration (hours)

11.1 (1.1)

-13.96 (-22.40, -5.52)

11.0 (1.1)

-10.24 (-16.91, -3.57)

11.1 (1.0)

-7.09 (-11.35, -2.82)

11.0 (1.1)

-6.52 (-9.20, -3.84)

Child has siblings

84.9%

-0.98 (-17.83, 15.88)

82.3%

-8.30 (-24.40, 7.81)

86.6%

-4.63 (-16.17, 6.91)

83.5%

1.79 (-9.37, 12.96)

Child BMI categoryc

 Underweight/healthy weight (ref)

82.5%

0

80.8%

0

83.3%

0

80.0%

0

 Overweight/obese

17.5%

2.64 (-14.22, 19.51)

19.2%

2.19 (-14.84, 19.21)

16.7%

-1.30 (-12.00, 10.02)

20.0%

6.94 (-3.84, 17.72)

Maternal age (years)

37.1 (5.3)

-0.13 (-1.65, 1.40)

37.1 (5.1)

-1.22 (-2.53, 0.09)

37.0 (5.1)

0.57 (-0.06, 1.21)

37.1 (5.2)

-0.30 (-1.07, 0.48)

Mother born in Australia

70.1%

-17.00 (-32.69, -1.32)

68.1%

-26.60 (-42.88, -10.32)

72.6%

-7.75 (-16.18, 0.69)

68.1%

-0.61 (-8.89, 7.67)

Maternal BMI categoryd

 Healthy weight (ref)

62.1%

0

60.9%

0

62.1%

0

62.8%

0

 Overweight

22.7%

11.13 (-1.70, 23.96)

21.8%

7.28 (-8.60, 23.16)

23.4%

5.69 (-2.98, 14.37)

19.2%

9.99 (0.51, 19.47)

 Obese

15.2%

17.04 (-8.42, 42.49)

17.3%

26.78 (7.91, 45.65)

14.6%

-8.80 (-18.27, 0.68)

18.0%

7.98 (-1.32, 17.28)

Mother in paid employmente

55.3%

-6.29 (-20.24, 7.66)

52.5%

-9.49 (-22.72, 3.74)

55.5%

5.63 (-2.12, 13.38)

50.8%

3.91 (-2.83, 10.65)

Maternal disability/poor health

3.4%

7.72 (-28.30, 43.75)

4.4%

33.04 (-3.77, 69.86)

2.5%

-17.05 (-35.42, 1.32)

4.6%

19.32 (5.72, 32.92)

Maternal education

Year 10 or equivalent (ref)

10.6%

0

11.2%

0

9.9%

0

11.2%

0

Year 12/trade/diploma

31.7%

-6.72 (-34.83, 21.38)

36.3%

-10.37 (-34.49, 13.75)

31.0%

-7.21 (-21.03, 6.61)

34.7%

6.71 (-9.16, 22.57)

University degree/post-graduate

57.7%

-17.11 (-45.00, 10.78)

52.6%

-34.98 (-57.46, -12.49)

59.0%

-1.83 (-13.93, 10.28)

54.2%

-6.23 (-18.96, 6.49)

Low income status (health care/pension card)

20.4%

13.72 (-4.88, 32.33)

18.1%

23.91 (3.92, 43.90)

17.7%

-4.05 (-14.67, 6.57)

17.7%

4.40 (-5.70, 14.5)

Paternal age (years)

39.1 (5.7)

-0.65 (-1.74, 0.43)

39.2 (5.5)

-0.58 (-1.99, 0.83)

38.9 (5.5)

0.85 (0.21, 1.50)

39.0 (5.3)

-0.27 (-1.14, 0.59)

Father born in Australia

68.3%

-8.24 (-22.90, 6.42)

66.9%

-19.14 (-35.97, -2.32)

71.3%

-6.46 (-15.31, 2.39)

69.5%

-2.25 (-11.36, 6.86)

Paternal BMI categoryd

 Healthy weight (ref)

38.6%

0

34.0%

0

36.7%

0

36.5%

0

 Overweight

45.2%

1.91 (-11.26, 15.08)

48.7%

4.62 (-11.62, 20.87)

46.9%

-0.38 (-9.41, 8.66)

47.0%

-3.47 (-11.23, 4.28)

 Obese

16.2%

18.84 (2.21, 35.48)

17.3%

18.97 (-2.31, 40.24)

16.3%

8.57 (-2.73, 19.86)

16.5%

6.99 (-4.81, 18.80)

Father in paid employmente

88.9%

10.16 (-7.81, 28.13)

90.8%

-16.27 (-42.18, 9.64)

89.7%

1.96 (-11.21, 15.12)

90.9%

-10.51 (-27.72, 6.71)

Paternal disability/poor health

4.9%

32.13 (-6.56, 70.83)

4.4%

38.40 (-10.43, 87.23)

4.5%

14.39 (-3.29, 32.08)

4.8%

4.17 (-9.92, 18.26)

Paternal education

Year 10 or equivalent (ref)

9.6%

0

9.5%

0

9.9%

0

7.8%

0

Year 12/trade/diploma

39.9%

-8.63 (-29.07, 11.82)

42.4%

0.26 (-25.22, 25.74)

39.2%

-4.91 (-16.47, 6.65)

41.8%

-8.10 (-26.21, 10.01)

University degree/post-graduate

50.5%

-14.67 (-33.75, 4.42)

48.1%

-28.92 (-52.31, -5.53)

51.0%

0.95 (-9.83, 11.73)

50.3%

-9.01 (-25.08, 7.06)

Child PA and SB

Usual frequency of active transport per week (e.g., ride a bike to kinder)

4.6 (3.9)

-0.22 (-1.79, 1.35)

4.3 (4.1)

-3.01 (-4.53, -1.49)

4.4 (3.6)

-0.73 (-1.65, 0.19)

4.2 (3.9)

-0.10 (-1.28, 1.07)

Usual frequency of non-organised activities per week (e.g., play in the backyard)

22.7 (9.8)

-0.51 (-1.20, 0.19)

22.8 (10.4)

-0.35 (-0.80, 0.09)

22.3 (9.7)

-0.28 (-0.65, 0.09)

22.3 (10.4)

-0.18 (-0.56, 0.19)

Number of organised activities per week (e.g., swimming, tennis)

0.9 (0.8)

-3.75 (-12.14, 4.63)

1.2 (0.8)

-17.67 (-25.95, -9.39)

0.9 (0.8)

0.93 (-3.81, 5.67)

1.2 (0.8)

-3.29 (-7.79, 1.21)

Child attends playgroupf

24.3%

4.98 (-8.96, 18.92)

20.8%

1.52 (-16.25, 19.30)

24.1%

0.27 (-7.36, 7.90)

20.1%

-3.88 (-11.64, 3.88)

Average outdoor play time hours/day (week and weekend day)

4.3 (2.7)

0.11 (-2.60, 2.82)

3.8 (2.5)

1.18 (-1.27, 3.63)

4.2 (2.6)

-0.27 (-1.77, 1.24)

3.7 (2.5)

-0.75 (-2.33, 0.83)

Child personality, preferences and constraints

Child active co-participation preferences (e.g., active by him/herself, active with his/her friends)

1.8 (1.5)

0.42 (-2.82, 3.65)

1.6 (1.4)

-0.78 (-5.74, 4.19)

1.8 (1.5)

-0.59 (-3.43, 2.25)

1.5 (1.4)

-1.92 (-4.60, 0.77)

Child is active for longer with someone else

79.2%

-20.57 (-40.06, -1.08)

78.3%

14.43 (-2.48, 31.34)

78.9%

-6.32 (-16.18, 3.55)

78.5%

-1.70 (-11.41, 8.00)

Child is competitive with other children when being active

66.2%

11.48 (-1.00, 23.96)

51.9%

-1.21 (-14.28, 11.86)

66.9%

2.75 (-3.41, 8.90)

51.3%

0.33 (-7.44, 8.09)

Child prosocial PA behaviour (e.g., asks for opportunities to be active)

12.8 (2.8)

0.29 (-2.17, 2.76)

12.6 (2.9)

-0.43 (-2.58, 1.73)

12.8 (2.7)

-0.24 (-1.40, 0.92)

12.5 (2.8)

-0.01 (-1.60, 1.58)

Child preferences for SB (e.g., more likely to watch TV than be active)

4.1 (1.6)

10.07 (5.98, 14.16)

4.4 (1.4)

14.51 (9.71, 19.32)

4.1 (1.6)

0.89 (-1.42, 3.20)

4.5 (1.4)

1.08 (-2.37, 4.53)

Child constraints to PA (e.g., too tired to do more PA)

-12.1 (4.5)

1.60 (0.11, 3.09)

-11.9 (4.4)

1.28 (-0.07, 2.63)

-12.2 (4.4)

-0.48 (-1.21, 0.25)

-11.8 (4.5)

-0.33 (-1.12, 0.46)

Social level

Parental influence

Parental concerns about child’s PA/SB

-3.9 (3.3)

4.59 (2.51, 6.66)

-4.4 (3.1)

7.47 (4.90, 10.04)

-3.8 (3.3)

0.57 (-0.44, 1.57)

-4.3 (3.0)

0.59 (-0.69, 1.87)

Parental constraints to child’s PA

6.9 (3.1)

2.87 (0.36, 5.38)

6.7 (3.2)

5.05 (3.19, 6.92)

6.9 (3.0)

0.14 (-1.01, 1.28)

6.8 (3.1)

0.94 (-0.19, 2.07)

Parent likes to participate in outdoor play

73.5%

4.70 (-8.72, 18.12)

70.8%

7.03 (-7.35, 21.41)

73.0%

3.65 (-3.37, 10.67)

70.0%

-5.31 (-13.37, 2.75)

Parent prefers to be social with other parents

36.7%

-5.65 (-17.2, 5.90)

39.1%

11.65 (-1.77, 25.07)

35.6%

-0.68 (-7.52, 6.15)

36.8%

-2.02 (-10.21, 6.16)

Parent gets bored watching child playing in outdoor spaces

11.8%

-22.01 (-36.87, -7.15)

12.5%

5.81 (-18.58, 30.19)

11.5%

-0.71 (-8.44, 7.02)

12.7%

-7.79 (-18.44, 2.86)

Parent likes child to do activities of older children

24.0%

-10.26 (-24.05, 3.52)

22.5%

12.73 (-2.27, 27.73)

24.7%

1.18 (-6.7, 9.07)

22.0%

6.29 (-2.93, 15.50)

Parent likes child to do activities they did as a child

34.3%

5.27 (-9.72, 20.26)

33.0%

1.79 (-12.19, 15.76)

34.4%

-0.71 (-7.41, 5.99)

34.1%

-0.01 (-8.59, 8.58)

Parent gets bored going to the same place

12.8%

5.71 (-21.47, 32.88)

10.9%

7.73 (-17.83, 33.29)

10.7%

-0.83 (-10.72, 9.06)

11.2%

-6.60 (-16.29, 3.09)

Parent believes it’s important to be active as a family

90.8%

-26.67 (-48.93, -4.42)

86.9%

-14.56 (-34.31, 5.19)

90.6%

-0.22 (-12.23, 11.80)

86.8%

-6.87 (-19.39, 5.65)

Parental self-efficacy to support PA

5.9 (1.7)

-3.62 (-7.02, -0.23)

5.9 (1.8)

-8.07 (-11.75, -4.38)

5.9 (1.7)

0.06 (-2.00, 2.12)

5.8 (1.8)

-0.54 (-2.60, 1.53)

Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time

8.7 (2.3)

-9.15 (-11.68, -6.62)

8.9 (2.5)

-8.25 (-10.98, -5.52)

8.8 (2.3)

-0.20 (-1.86, 1.46)

9.0 (2.4)

-0.89 (-2.43, 0.66)

Parental health knowledge/beliefs of child's PA

1.5 (2.2)

-4.19 (-8.74, 0.36)

1.3 (2.2)

-5.65 (-8.87, -2.44)

1.6 (2.1)

-0.08 (-1.72, 1.56)

1.3 (2.2)

0.46 (-1.31, 2.23)

Rules and boundaries

Parental rules to limit screen time

2.1 (1.6)

-11.40 (-16.32, -6.48)

2.2 (1.5)

-14.20 (-18.24, -10.16)

2.2 (1.6)

-0.64 (-2.65, 1.37)

2.2 (1.5)

-1.90 (-4.46, 0.66)

Parental rules about games inside (e.g., no throwing balls inside)

-0.2 (2.1)

1.13 (-2.50, 4.76)

-0.2 (2.1)

1.13 (-2.50, 4.76)

-0.2 (2.1)

-0.16 (-1.90, 1.58)

-0.1 (2.1)

1.16 (-0.73, 3.05)

Parental rules about PA for stranger danger, traffic, injury

2.3 (1.5)

-1.23 (-6.15, 3.70)

2.3 (1.6)

1.27 (-2.65, 5.19)

2.3 (1.5)

-1.73 (-4.17, 0.71)

2.3 (1.5)

-0.31 (-3.17, 2.54)

Parent allows child to play freely in backyard/street

-0.1 (1.2)

-6.29 (-13.74, 1.16)

-0.1 (1.2)

-7.11 (-12.49, -1.73)

-0.1 (1.1)

-2.67 (-6.09, 0.75)

-0.04 (1.2)

-0.97 (-3.99, 2.05)

Parent switches off screen entertainment

2.7 (1.4)

3.19 (-0.62, 7.00)

2.6 (1.3)

3.26 (-1.76, 8.28)

2.7 (1.4)

-0.27 (-2.80, 2.26)

2.7 (1.3)

-0.83 (-3.35, 1.69)

Social interaction and support

Child is active at social gatherings

6.0 (1.0)

5.26 (-1.42, 11.95)

6.0 (1.2)

1.05 (-5.88, 7.97)

6.0 (1.0)

-0.54 (-5.45, 4.37)

5.9 (1.2)

-1.86 (-4.50, 0.77)

Maternal PA emotional support for child

5.5 (2.1)

4.32 (1.74, 6.90)

5.4 (2.1)

1.20 (-1.84, 4.24)

5.5 (2.1)

-1.75 (-3.46, -0.04)

5.4 (2.1)

-0.92 (-2.55, 0.71)

Paternal PA emotional support for child

4.7 (2.4)

4.29 (1.89, 6.70)

4.6 (2.4)

1.86 (-0.95, 4.66)

4.7 (2.4)

-1.25 (-2.77, 0.28)

4.6 (2.4)

-0.73 (-2.43, 0.97)

Modelling of PA

Maternal time in PA (hours/week)

5.4 (4.2)

-0.01 (-1.72, 1.69)

5.0 (4.0)

-1.28 (-3.01, 0.45)

5.3 (4.0)

-0.17 (-0.79, 0.45)

4.9 (3.9)

0.46 (-0.54, 1.45)

Paternal time in PA (hours/week)

5.4 (4.7)

0.24 (-0.93, 1.40)

5.2 (4.6)

-2.12 (-3.65, -0.59)

5.0 (4.3)

-0.47 (-1.17, 0.22)

5.2 (4.5)

0.35 (-0.53, 1.23)

Maternal TV viewing (hours/week)

8.6 (6.8)

3.87 (1.81, 5.93)

9.0 (6.5)

2.62 (1.56, 3.68)

8.6 (6.1)

-0.14 (-0.74, 0.46)

9.2 (6.6)

0.10 (-0.46, 0.66)

Paternal TV viewing (hours/week)

9.6 (6.6)

1.91 (0.96, 2.85)

9.8 (7.0)

2.26 (1.23, 3.29)

9.8 (6.4)

0.16 (-0.39, 0.71)

9.6 (6.9)

-0.01 (-0.48, 0.46)

Maternal role modelling of PA (times/week)

3.2 (2.0)

-0.63 (-4.49, 3.23)

3.0 (2.0)

-3.67 (-6.97, -0.38)

3.3 (2.0)

-0.29 (-1.94, 1.35)

3.0 (2.0)

-1.03 (-3.27, 1.22)

Paternal role modelling of PA (times/week)

2.8 (2.0)

-1.82 (-4.88, 1.24)

2.6 (2.0)

-4.68 (-7.73, -1.63)

2.8 (1.9)

-0.21 (-2.01, 1.60)

2.7 (2.0)

-0.28 (-2.26, 1.69)

Physical environment level

Dog ownership

32.3%

3.35 (-9.64, 16.34)

32.2%

-1.44 (-14.89, 12.00)

32.1%

0.90 (-6.43, 8.22)

31.2%

4.94 (-2.91, 12.79)

Number of pieces of toys/equipment to be physically active with at home (e.g., swings, slide)

13.3 (3.5)

-1.62 (-3.25, 0.001)

13.1 (3.7)

-2.37 (-4.15, -0.60)

13.4 (3.5)

-0.12 (-1.17, 0.93)

13.1 (3.7)

-0.69 (-1.89, 0.52)

Lives on medium/large block

86.1%

1.16 (-14.99, 17.30)

85.2%

-8.11 (-26.65, 10.43)

86.1%

-1.06 (-12.25, 10.13)

84.5%

-6.63 (-18.48, 5.21)

Number of features at home (e.g., front fence, covered outdoor areas)

1.9 (0.9)

-11.00 (-20.38, -1.62)

1.9 (0.9)

-11.48 -17.82, -5.14)

2.0 (0.8)

2.02 (-2.10, 6.14)

1.9 (0.8)

-3.14 (-8.23, 1.95)

Lives on a cul-de-sac

24.1%

24.23 (7.27, 41.19)

29.6%

13.57 (-1.66, 28.79)

23.3%

-5.76 (-13.49, 1.97)

28.0%

0.31 (-7.40, 8.01)

Number of pieces of electronic equipment at home (e.g., DVD player, PlayStation)

5.1 (1.2)

3.83 (-2.76, 10.41)

5.1 (1.1)

2.89 (-2.67, 8.46)

5.1 (1.1)

1.01 (-2.89, 4.91)

5.0 (1.1)

1.58 (-2.33, 5.49)

Number of TVs at home

2.2 (1.2)

7.31 (1.89, 12.74)

2.2 (1.1)

14.08 (7.61, 20.55)

2.2 (1.1)

-0.80 (-3.60, 2.00)

2.2 (1.0)

4.10 (1.00, 7.20)

TV in child’s bedroom

10.6%

23.51 (4.75, 42.28)

9.5%

50.01 (23.84, 76.18)

10.0%

0.02 (-11.97, 12.01)

7.1%

12.36 (-1.91, 26.63)

Computer/e-games in child’s bedroom

4.2%

11.34 (-28.46, 51.15)

4.2%

5.86 (-22.70, 34.41)

4.1%

17.37 (-9.11, 43.85)

3.7%

15.80 (-1.21, 32.81)

Neighbourhood playground suitability (e.g., equipment, shade, safety)

5.5 (4.4)

-2.98 (-5.30, -0.66)

5.2 (4.4)

-2.71 (-4.15, -1.28)

5.6 (4.2)

-0.92 (-1.65, -0.19)

5.5 (4.5)

-0.31 (-1.13, 0.52)

Neighbourhood constraints to active transport (e.g., busy roads)

4.9 (4.4)

-1.46 (-3.19, 0.28)

4.8 (4.6)

-2.06 (-3.50, -0.62)

5.0 (4.4)

-0.65 (-1.28, -0.01)

5.0 (4.4)

-0.42 (-1.34, 0.50)

Total frequency of visiting active places per week

6.5 (3.2)

0.64 (-1.58, 2.85)

5.9 (3.0)

0.24 (-2.62, 3.10)

6.4 (3.2)

-0.77 (-1.90, 0.37)

5.9 (3.1)

-0.35 (-1.60, 0.90)

BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; e-games electronic games; PA physical activity; SB sedentary behaviour; TV television

Notes: aAll models adjusted for age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment; bReported as % for binary/categorical variables and mean (SD) for continuous variables; cDirectly measured height and weight, calculated using Cole et al. classifications; dParents’ self-reported height and weight, calculated using WHO classifications; eIncludes part- and full-time paid employment; f In Australia, playgroups are informal gatherings for parents (and caregivers) and their children prior to the commencement of school; bolded data indicates significance (p<0.05); - indicates variable not included in combined model

Table 2

Combined regression modelsa for correlates of screen time and sedentary time for boys and girls

Variable

Screen time mins/day

Sedentary time mins/day

Boys (n=504)

Girls (n=433)

Boys (n=394)

Girls (n=323)

β (95% CI)

β (95% CI)

β (95% CI)

β (95% CI)

Individual level

Demographic and family profile

Child disability/poor health

-

-

-

10.18 (-3.03, 23.40)

Child sleep duration (hours)

-7.49 (-13.46, -1.52)

-5.67 (-11.57, 0.23)

-3.97 (-7.95, 0.01)

-5.76 (-8.83, -2.69)

Mother born in Australia

0.99 (-11.45, 13.42)

-15.66 (-28.97, -2.35)

-

-

Maternal BMI categoryc

    

 Healthy weight (ref)

-

0

-

0

 Overweight

-

1.56 (-12.22, 15.34)

-

8.55 (-0.90, 18.00)

 Obese

-

15.11 (-4.11, 34.32)

-

5.20 (-4.05, 14.45)

Maternal disability/poor health

-

-

-

10.97 (-5.36, 27.30)

Maternal education

Year 10 or equivalent (ref)

-

0

-

-

Year 12/trade/diploma

-

-3.39 (-27.86, 21.09)

-

-

University degree/post-graduate

-

-2.62 (-30.91, 25.66)

-

-

Low income status (health care/pension card)

-

-4.22 (-23.18, 14.74)

-

-

Paternal age (years)

-

-

0.73 (0.10, 1.35)

-

Father born in Australia

-

-3.93 (-17.82, 9.95)

-

-

Paternal BMI categoryc

    

 Healthy weight (ref)

0

-

-

-

 Overweight

-1.15 (-13.03, 10.74)

-

-

-

 Obese

2.79 (-12.80, 18.37)

-

-

-

Paternal education

    

 Year 10 or equivalent (ref)

-

0

-

-

 Year 12/trade/diploma

-

23.26 (0.11, 46.41)

-

-

 University degree/post-graduate

-

9.66 (-16.33, 35.65)

-

-

Child PA and SB

    

Usual frequency of active transport per week (e.g., ride a bike to kinder)

-

-1.72 (-3.14, -0.30)

-

-

Number of organised activities per week (e.g., swimming, tennis)

-

-7.54 (-15.72, 0.64)

-

-

Child personality, preferences and constraints

Child is active for longer with someone else

-10.63 (-23.18, 1.93)

-

-

-

Child preferences for SB (e.g., more likely to watch TV than be active)

3.52 (-1.49, 8.53)

7.09 (2.47, 11.70)

-

-

Child constraints to PA (e.g., too tired to do more PA)

-0.69 (-2.12, 0.75)

-

-

-

Social level

Parental influence

Parental concerns about child’s PA/SB

1.87 (-0.05, 3.78)

3.19 (0.62, 5.76)

-

-

Parental constraints to child’s PA

0.74 (-1.36, 2.84)

1.29 (-0.55, 3.13)

-

-

Parent gets bored watching child playing in outdoor spaces

-14.43 (-27.99, -0.86)

-

-

-

Parent believes it’s important to be active as a family

6.08 (-10.86, 23.02)

-

-

-

Parental self-efficacy to support PA

0.76 (-2.78, 4.30)

1.67 (-2.23, 5.58)

-

-

Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time

-6.52 (-9.51, -3.54)

-2.64 (-5.12, -0.16)

-

-

Parental health knowledge/beliefs of child's PA

-

0.22 (-3.67, 4.11)

-

-

Rules and boundaries

Parental rules to limit screen time

-5.15 (-9.20, -1.11)

-5.20 (-9.94, -0.47)

-

-

Parent allows child to play freely in backyard/street

-

-4.62 (-9.39, 0.16)

-

-

Social interaction and support

    

Maternal PA emotional support for child

2.14 (-1.47, 5.76)

-

-1.10 (-2.84, 0.63)

-

Paternal PA emotional support for child

2.14 (-0.87, 5.14)

-

-

-

Modelling of PA

Paternal time in PA (hours/week)

-

-0.62 (-2.29, 1.04)

-

-

Maternal TV viewing (hours/week)

2.27 (1.09, 3.46)

1.33 (-0.05, 2.70)

-

-

Paternal TV viewing (hours/week)

0.49 (-0.71, 1.69)

0.65 (-0.33, 1.63)

-

-

Maternal role modelling of PA (times/week)

-

0.36 (-3.27, 4.00)

-

-

Paternal role modelling of PA (times/week)

-

0.54 (-3.54, 4.61)

-

-

Physical environment level

Number of pieces of toys/ equipment to be physically active with at home (e.g., swings, slide)

-

0.57 (-1.15, 2.29)

-

-

Number of features at home (e.g., front fence, covered outdoor areas)

-2.51 (-9.95, 4.92)

-2.34 (-9.40, 4.72)

-

-

Lives on a cul-de-sac

11.70 (-1.26, 24.66)

-

-

-

Number of TVs at home

3.65 (-2.04, 9.34)

5.15 (-1.69, 11.99)

-

2.45 (-0.79, 5.70)

TV in child’s bedroom

-1.74 (-23.72, 20.23)

27.14 (-5.49, 59.77)

-

-

Neighbourhood playground suitability (e.g., equipment, shade, safety)

0.11 (-1.10, 1.32)

-0.69 (-2.11, 0.73)

-0.69 (-1.51, 0.12)

-

Neighbourhood constraints to active transport (e.g., busy roads)

-

0.14 (-1.29, 1.57)

-0.26 (-0.96, 0.43)

-

BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; PA physical activity; SB sedentary behaviour; TV television

Notes: aAll models adjusted for age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment; bReported as % for binary/categorical variables and mean (SD) for continuous variables; cParents’ self-reported height and weight, calculated using WHO classifications; bolded data indicates significance (p<0.05); - indicates variable not included in combined model

Notes

Declarations

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
(2)
School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University

Reference

  1. Downing K, Hinkley T, Salmon J, Hnatiuk J, Hesketh K. Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children? BMC Public Health. 2017;17:1. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4195-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2017

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