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Table 1 Individual regression modelsa for all potential correlates of screen time and sedentary time for boys and girls

From: Erratum to: Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

Variable Screen time mins/day Sedentary time mins/day
Boys (n=504) Girls (n=433) Boys (n=394) Girls (n=323)
% or mean (SD)b β (95% CI) % or mean (SD)b β (95% CI) % or mean (SD)b β (95% CI) % or mean (SD)b β (95% CI)
Individual level
Demographic and family profile
Child disability/poor health 10.3% 4.57 (-17.79, 26.93) 5.6% 39.18 (-4.82, 83.18) 9.9% -10.93 (-21.99, 0.12) 5.6% 14.38 (0.64, 28.13)
Child’s birth parents live together 86.9% -5.90 (-30.42, 18.63) 89.3% -10.91 (-40.22, 18.40) 88.1% 9.71 (-0.63, 20.05) 90.0% -1.60 (-14.50, 11.30)
Child sleep duration (hours) 11.1 (1.1) -13.96 (-22.40, -5.52) 11.0 (1.1) -10.24 (-16.91, -3.57) 11.1 (1.0) -7.09 (-11.35, -2.82) 11.0 (1.1) -6.52 (-9.20, -3.84)
Child has siblings 84.9% -0.98 (-17.83, 15.88) 82.3% -8.30 (-24.40, 7.81) 86.6% -4.63 (-16.17, 6.91) 83.5% 1.79 (-9.37, 12.96)
Child BMI categoryc
 Underweight/healthy weight (ref) 82.5% 0 80.8% 0 83.3% 0 80.0% 0
 Overweight/obese 17.5% 2.64 (-14.22, 19.51) 19.2% 2.19 (-14.84, 19.21) 16.7% -1.30 (-12.00, 10.02) 20.0% 6.94 (-3.84, 17.72)
Maternal age (years) 37.1 (5.3) -0.13 (-1.65, 1.40) 37.1 (5.1) -1.22 (-2.53, 0.09) 37.0 (5.1) 0.57 (-0.06, 1.21) 37.1 (5.2) -0.30 (-1.07, 0.48)
Mother born in Australia 70.1% -17.00 (-32.69, -1.32) 68.1% -26.60 (-42.88, -10.32) 72.6% -7.75 (-16.18, 0.69) 68.1% -0.61 (-8.89, 7.67)
Maternal BMI categoryd
 Healthy weight (ref) 62.1% 0 60.9% 0 62.1% 0 62.8% 0
 Overweight 22.7% 11.13 (-1.70, 23.96) 21.8% 7.28 (-8.60, 23.16) 23.4% 5.69 (-2.98, 14.37) 19.2% 9.99 (0.51, 19.47)
 Obese 15.2% 17.04 (-8.42, 42.49) 17.3% 26.78 (7.91, 45.65) 14.6% -8.80 (-18.27, 0.68) 18.0% 7.98 (-1.32, 17.28)
Mother in paid employmente 55.3% -6.29 (-20.24, 7.66) 52.5% -9.49 (-22.72, 3.74) 55.5% 5.63 (-2.12, 13.38) 50.8% 3.91 (-2.83, 10.65)
Maternal disability/poor health 3.4% 7.72 (-28.30, 43.75) 4.4% 33.04 (-3.77, 69.86) 2.5% -17.05 (-35.42, 1.32) 4.6% 19.32 (5.72, 32.92)
Maternal education
Year 10 or equivalent (ref) 10.6% 0 11.2% 0 9.9% 0 11.2% 0
Year 12/trade/diploma 31.7% -6.72 (-34.83, 21.38) 36.3% -10.37 (-34.49, 13.75) 31.0% -7.21 (-21.03, 6.61) 34.7% 6.71 (-9.16, 22.57)
University degree/post-graduate 57.7% -17.11 (-45.00, 10.78) 52.6% -34.98 (-57.46, -12.49) 59.0% -1.83 (-13.93, 10.28) 54.2% -6.23 (-18.96, 6.49)
Low income status (health care/pension card) 20.4% 13.72 (-4.88, 32.33) 18.1% 23.91 (3.92, 43.90) 17.7% -4.05 (-14.67, 6.57) 17.7% 4.40 (-5.70, 14.5)
Paternal age (years) 39.1 (5.7) -0.65 (-1.74, 0.43) 39.2 (5.5) -0.58 (-1.99, 0.83) 38.9 (5.5) 0.85 (0.21, 1.50) 39.0 (5.3) -0.27 (-1.14, 0.59)
Father born in Australia 68.3% -8.24 (-22.90, 6.42) 66.9% -19.14 (-35.97, -2.32) 71.3% -6.46 (-15.31, 2.39) 69.5% -2.25 (-11.36, 6.86)
Paternal BMI categoryd
 Healthy weight (ref) 38.6% 0 34.0% 0 36.7% 0 36.5% 0
 Overweight 45.2% 1.91 (-11.26, 15.08) 48.7% 4.62 (-11.62, 20.87) 46.9% -0.38 (-9.41, 8.66) 47.0% -3.47 (-11.23, 4.28)
 Obese 16.2% 18.84 (2.21, 35.48) 17.3% 18.97 (-2.31, 40.24) 16.3% 8.57 (-2.73, 19.86) 16.5% 6.99 (-4.81, 18.80)
Father in paid employmente 88.9% 10.16 (-7.81, 28.13) 90.8% -16.27 (-42.18, 9.64) 89.7% 1.96 (-11.21, 15.12) 90.9% -10.51 (-27.72, 6.71)
Paternal disability/poor health 4.9% 32.13 (-6.56, 70.83) 4.4% 38.40 (-10.43, 87.23) 4.5% 14.39 (-3.29, 32.08) 4.8% 4.17 (-9.92, 18.26)
Paternal education
Year 10 or equivalent (ref) 9.6% 0 9.5% 0 9.9% 0 7.8% 0
Year 12/trade/diploma 39.9% -8.63 (-29.07, 11.82) 42.4% 0.26 (-25.22, 25.74) 39.2% -4.91 (-16.47, 6.65) 41.8% -8.10 (-26.21, 10.01)
University degree/post-graduate 50.5% -14.67 (-33.75, 4.42) 48.1% -28.92 (-52.31, -5.53) 51.0% 0.95 (-9.83, 11.73) 50.3% -9.01 (-25.08, 7.06)
Child PA and SB
Usual frequency of active transport per week (e.g., ride a bike to kinder) 4.6 (3.9) -0.22 (-1.79, 1.35) 4.3 (4.1) -3.01 (-4.53, -1.49) 4.4 (3.6) -0.73 (-1.65, 0.19) 4.2 (3.9) -0.10 (-1.28, 1.07)
Usual frequency of non-organised activities per week (e.g., play in the backyard) 22.7 (9.8) -0.51 (-1.20, 0.19) 22.8 (10.4) -0.35 (-0.80, 0.09) 22.3 (9.7) -0.28 (-0.65, 0.09) 22.3 (10.4) -0.18 (-0.56, 0.19)
Number of organised activities per week (e.g., swimming, tennis) 0.9 (0.8) -3.75 (-12.14, 4.63) 1.2 (0.8) -17.67 (-25.95, -9.39) 0.9 (0.8) 0.93 (-3.81, 5.67) 1.2 (0.8) -3.29 (-7.79, 1.21)
Child attends playgroupf 24.3% 4.98 (-8.96, 18.92) 20.8% 1.52 (-16.25, 19.30) 24.1% 0.27 (-7.36, 7.90) 20.1% -3.88 (-11.64, 3.88)
Average outdoor play time hours/day (week and weekend day) 4.3 (2.7) 0.11 (-2.60, 2.82) 3.8 (2.5) 1.18 (-1.27, 3.63) 4.2 (2.6) -0.27 (-1.77, 1.24) 3.7 (2.5) -0.75 (-2.33, 0.83)
Child personality, preferences and constraints
Child active co-participation preferences (e.g., active by him/herself, active with his/her friends) 1.8 (1.5) 0.42 (-2.82, 3.65) 1.6 (1.4) -0.78 (-5.74, 4.19) 1.8 (1.5) -0.59 (-3.43, 2.25) 1.5 (1.4) -1.92 (-4.60, 0.77)
Child is active for longer with someone else 79.2% -20.57 (-40.06, -1.08) 78.3% 14.43 (-2.48, 31.34) 78.9% -6.32 (-16.18, 3.55) 78.5% -1.70 (-11.41, 8.00)
Child is competitive with other children when being active 66.2% 11.48 (-1.00, 23.96) 51.9% -1.21 (-14.28, 11.86) 66.9% 2.75 (-3.41, 8.90) 51.3% 0.33 (-7.44, 8.09)
Child prosocial PA behaviour (e.g., asks for opportunities to be active) 12.8 (2.8) 0.29 (-2.17, 2.76) 12.6 (2.9) -0.43 (-2.58, 1.73) 12.8 (2.7) -0.24 (-1.40, 0.92) 12.5 (2.8) -0.01 (-1.60, 1.58)
Child preferences for SB (e.g., more likely to watch TV than be active) 4.1 (1.6) 10.07 (5.98, 14.16) 4.4 (1.4) 14.51 (9.71, 19.32) 4.1 (1.6) 0.89 (-1.42, 3.20) 4.5 (1.4) 1.08 (-2.37, 4.53)
Child constraints to PA (e.g., too tired to do more PA) -12.1 (4.5) 1.60 (0.11, 3.09) -11.9 (4.4) 1.28 (-0.07, 2.63) -12.2 (4.4) -0.48 (-1.21, 0.25) -11.8 (4.5) -0.33 (-1.12, 0.46)
Social level
Parental influence
Parental concerns about child’s PA/SB -3.9 (3.3) 4.59 (2.51, 6.66) -4.4 (3.1) 7.47 (4.90, 10.04) -3.8 (3.3) 0.57 (-0.44, 1.57) -4.3 (3.0) 0.59 (-0.69, 1.87)
Parental constraints to child’s PA 6.9 (3.1) 2.87 (0.36, 5.38) 6.7 (3.2) 5.05 (3.19, 6.92) 6.9 (3.0) 0.14 (-1.01, 1.28) 6.8 (3.1) 0.94 (-0.19, 2.07)
Parent likes to participate in outdoor play 73.5% 4.70 (-8.72, 18.12) 70.8% 7.03 (-7.35, 21.41) 73.0% 3.65 (-3.37, 10.67) 70.0% -5.31 (-13.37, 2.75)
Parent prefers to be social with other parents 36.7% -5.65 (-17.2, 5.90) 39.1% 11.65 (-1.77, 25.07) 35.6% -0.68 (-7.52, 6.15) 36.8% -2.02 (-10.21, 6.16)
Parent gets bored watching child playing in outdoor spaces 11.8% -22.01 (-36.87, -7.15) 12.5% 5.81 (-18.58, 30.19) 11.5% -0.71 (-8.44, 7.02) 12.7% -7.79 (-18.44, 2.86)
Parent likes child to do activities of older children 24.0% -10.26 (-24.05, 3.52) 22.5% 12.73 (-2.27, 27.73) 24.7% 1.18 (-6.7, 9.07) 22.0% 6.29 (-2.93, 15.50)
Parent likes child to do activities they did as a child 34.3% 5.27 (-9.72, 20.26) 33.0% 1.79 (-12.19, 15.76) 34.4% -0.71 (-7.41, 5.99) 34.1% -0.01 (-8.59, 8.58)
Parent gets bored going to the same place 12.8% 5.71 (-21.47, 32.88) 10.9% 7.73 (-17.83, 33.29) 10.7% -0.83 (-10.72, 9.06) 11.2% -6.60 (-16.29, 3.09)
Parent believes it’s important to be active as a family 90.8% -26.67 (-48.93, -4.42) 86.9% -14.56 (-34.31, 5.19) 90.6% -0.22 (-12.23, 11.80) 86.8% -6.87 (-19.39, 5.65)
Parental self-efficacy to support PA 5.9 (1.7) -3.62 (-7.02, -0.23) 5.9 (1.8) -8.07 (-11.75, -4.38) 5.9 (1.7) 0.06 (-2.00, 2.12) 5.8 (1.8) -0.54 (-2.60, 1.53)
Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time 8.7 (2.3) -9.15 (-11.68, -6.62) 8.9 (2.5) -8.25 (-10.98, -5.52) 8.8 (2.3) -0.20 (-1.86, 1.46) 9.0 (2.4) -0.89 (-2.43, 0.66)
Parental health knowledge/beliefs of child's PA 1.5 (2.2) -4.19 (-8.74, 0.36) 1.3 (2.2) -5.65 (-8.87, -2.44) 1.6 (2.1) -0.08 (-1.72, 1.56) 1.3 (2.2) 0.46 (-1.31, 2.23)
Rules and boundaries
Parental rules to limit screen time 2.1 (1.6) -11.40 (-16.32, -6.48) 2.2 (1.5) -14.20 (-18.24, -10.16) 2.2 (1.6) -0.64 (-2.65, 1.37) 2.2 (1.5) -1.90 (-4.46, 0.66)
Parental rules about games inside (e.g., no throwing balls inside) -0.2 (2.1) 1.13 (-2.50, 4.76) -0.2 (2.1) 1.13 (-2.50, 4.76) -0.2 (2.1) -0.16 (-1.90, 1.58) -0.1 (2.1) 1.16 (-0.73, 3.05)
Parental rules about PA for stranger danger, traffic, injury 2.3 (1.5) -1.23 (-6.15, 3.70) 2.3 (1.6) 1.27 (-2.65, 5.19) 2.3 (1.5) -1.73 (-4.17, 0.71) 2.3 (1.5) -0.31 (-3.17, 2.54)
Parent allows child to play freely in backyard/street -0.1 (1.2) -6.29 (-13.74, 1.16) -0.1 (1.2) -7.11 (-12.49, -1.73) -0.1 (1.1) -2.67 (-6.09, 0.75) -0.04 (1.2) -0.97 (-3.99, 2.05)
Parent switches off screen entertainment 2.7 (1.4) 3.19 (-0.62, 7.00) 2.6 (1.3) 3.26 (-1.76, 8.28) 2.7 (1.4) -0.27 (-2.80, 2.26) 2.7 (1.3) -0.83 (-3.35, 1.69)
Social interaction and support
Child is active at social gatherings 6.0 (1.0) 5.26 (-1.42, 11.95) 6.0 (1.2) 1.05 (-5.88, 7.97) 6.0 (1.0) -0.54 (-5.45, 4.37) 5.9 (1.2) -1.86 (-4.50, 0.77)
Maternal PA emotional support for child 5.5 (2.1) 4.32 (1.74, 6.90) 5.4 (2.1) 1.20 (-1.84, 4.24) 5.5 (2.1) -1.75 (-3.46, -0.04) 5.4 (2.1) -0.92 (-2.55, 0.71)
Paternal PA emotional support for child 4.7 (2.4) 4.29 (1.89, 6.70) 4.6 (2.4) 1.86 (-0.95, 4.66) 4.7 (2.4) -1.25 (-2.77, 0.28) 4.6 (2.4) -0.73 (-2.43, 0.97)
Modelling of PA
Maternal time in PA (hours/week) 5.4 (4.2) -0.01 (-1.72, 1.69) 5.0 (4.0) -1.28 (-3.01, 0.45) 5.3 (4.0) -0.17 (-0.79, 0.45) 4.9 (3.9) 0.46 (-0.54, 1.45)
Paternal time in PA (hours/week) 5.4 (4.7) 0.24 (-0.93, 1.40) 5.2 (4.6) -2.12 (-3.65, -0.59) 5.0 (4.3) -0.47 (-1.17, 0.22) 5.2 (4.5) 0.35 (-0.53, 1.23)
Maternal TV viewing (hours/week) 8.6 (6.8) 3.87 (1.81, 5.93) 9.0 (6.5) 2.62 (1.56, 3.68) 8.6 (6.1) -0.14 (-0.74, 0.46) 9.2 (6.6) 0.10 (-0.46, 0.66)
Paternal TV viewing (hours/week) 9.6 (6.6) 1.91 (0.96, 2.85) 9.8 (7.0) 2.26 (1.23, 3.29) 9.8 (6.4) 0.16 (-0.39, 0.71) 9.6 (6.9) -0.01 (-0.48, 0.46)
Maternal role modelling of PA (times/week) 3.2 (2.0) -0.63 (-4.49, 3.23) 3.0 (2.0) -3.67 (-6.97, -0.38) 3.3 (2.0) -0.29 (-1.94, 1.35) 3.0 (2.0) -1.03 (-3.27, 1.22)
Paternal role modelling of PA (times/week) 2.8 (2.0) -1.82 (-4.88, 1.24) 2.6 (2.0) -4.68 (-7.73, -1.63) 2.8 (1.9) -0.21 (-2.01, 1.60) 2.7 (2.0) -0.28 (-2.26, 1.69)
Physical environment level
Dog ownership 32.3% 3.35 (-9.64, 16.34) 32.2% -1.44 (-14.89, 12.00) 32.1% 0.90 (-6.43, 8.22) 31.2% 4.94 (-2.91, 12.79)
Number of pieces of toys/equipment to be physically active with at home (e.g., swings, slide) 13.3 (3.5) -1.62 (-3.25, 0.001) 13.1 (3.7) -2.37 (-4.15, -0.60) 13.4 (3.5) -0.12 (-1.17, 0.93) 13.1 (3.7) -0.69 (-1.89, 0.52)
Lives on medium/large block 86.1% 1.16 (-14.99, 17.30) 85.2% -8.11 (-26.65, 10.43) 86.1% -1.06 (-12.25, 10.13) 84.5% -6.63 (-18.48, 5.21)
Number of features at home (e.g., front fence, covered outdoor areas) 1.9 (0.9) -11.00 (-20.38, -1.62) 1.9 (0.9) -11.48 -17.82, -5.14) 2.0 (0.8) 2.02 (-2.10, 6.14) 1.9 (0.8) -3.14 (-8.23, 1.95)
Lives on a cul-de-sac 24.1% 24.23 (7.27, 41.19) 29.6% 13.57 (-1.66, 28.79) 23.3% -5.76 (-13.49, 1.97) 28.0% 0.31 (-7.40, 8.01)
Number of pieces of electronic equipment at home (e.g., DVD player, PlayStation) 5.1 (1.2) 3.83 (-2.76, 10.41) 5.1 (1.1) 2.89 (-2.67, 8.46) 5.1 (1.1) 1.01 (-2.89, 4.91) 5.0 (1.1) 1.58 (-2.33, 5.49)
Number of TVs at home 2.2 (1.2) 7.31 (1.89, 12.74) 2.2 (1.1) 14.08 (7.61, 20.55) 2.2 (1.1) -0.80 (-3.60, 2.00) 2.2 (1.0) 4.10 (1.00, 7.20)
TV in child’s bedroom 10.6% 23.51 (4.75, 42.28) 9.5% 50.01 (23.84, 76.18) 10.0% 0.02 (-11.97, 12.01) 7.1% 12.36 (-1.91, 26.63)
Computer/e-games in child’s bedroom 4.2% 11.34 (-28.46, 51.15) 4.2% 5.86 (-22.70, 34.41) 4.1% 17.37 (-9.11, 43.85) 3.7% 15.80 (-1.21, 32.81)
Neighbourhood playground suitability (e.g., equipment, shade, safety) 5.5 (4.4) -2.98 (-5.30, -0.66) 5.2 (4.4) -2.71 (-4.15, -1.28) 5.6 (4.2) -0.92 (-1.65, -0.19) 5.5 (4.5) -0.31 (-1.13, 0.52)
Neighbourhood constraints to active transport (e.g., busy roads) 4.9 (4.4) -1.46 (-3.19, 0.28) 4.8 (4.6) -2.06 (-3.50, -0.62) 5.0 (4.4) -0.65 (-1.28, -0.01) 5.0 (4.4) -0.42 (-1.34, 0.50)
Total frequency of visiting active places per week 6.5 (3.2) 0.64 (-1.58, 2.85) 5.9 (3.0) 0.24 (-2.62, 3.10) 6.4 (3.2) -0.77 (-1.90, 0.37) 5.9 (3.1) -0.35 (-1.60, 0.90)
  1. BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; e-games electronic games; PA physical activity; SB sedentary behaviour; TV television
  2. Notes: aAll models adjusted for age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment; bReported as % for binary/categorical variables and mean (SD) for continuous variables; cDirectly measured height and weight, calculated using Cole et al. classifications; dParents’ self-reported height and weight, calculated using WHO classifications; eIncludes part- and full-time paid employment; f In Australia, playgroups are informal gatherings for parents (and caregivers) and their children prior to the commencement of school; bolded data indicates significance (p<0.05); - indicates variable not included in combined model