Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(6):531–7.
Basile LA, Taylor SN, Wagner CL, Quinones L, Hollis BW. Neonatal vitamin D status at birth at latitude 32 degrees 72’: evidence of deficiency. J Perinatol. 2007;27(9):568–71.
Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, Collett-Solberg PF, Kappy M. Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics. 2008;122(2):398–417.
Grant WB. An ecologic study of dietary and solar ultraviolet-B links to breast carcinoma mortality rates. Cancer. 2002;94(1):272–81.
Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED, Lipkin M, Newmark H, Mohr SB. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(2):252–61.
Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, Jarvelin MR, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358(9292):1500–3.
Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2006;296(23):2832–8.
Ginde AA, Mansbach JM, Camargo Jr CA. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(4):384–90.
Urashima M, Segawa T, Okazaki M, Kurihara M, Wada Y, Ida H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(5):1255–60.
Zittermann A. Vitamin D, and disease prevention with special reference to cardiovascular disease. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006;92(1):39–48.
Holick MF. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest. 2006;116(8):2062–72.
Rovner AJ, O’Brien KO. Hypovitaminosis D among healthy children in the United States: a review of the current evidence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(6):513–9.
Janjai S, Kirdsiri K, Masiri I, Nunez M. An investigation of solar erythemal ultraviolet radiation in the tropics: a case study at four stations in Thailand. Int J Climatol. 2010;30(12):1893–903.
Holick MF. Vitamin D, deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266–81.
Lund C, Browder N. The estimation of areas of burns. Surg Gynaecol Obstet. 1944;79:352–8.
Khor GL, Chee WS, Shariff ZM, Poh BK, Arumugam M, Rahman JA, et al. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:95.
McCarthy HD, Cole TJ, Fry T, Jebb SA, Prentice AM. Body fat reference curves for children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30(4):598–602.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Children’s BMI Tool for Schools. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/tool_for_schools.html. Accessed 5 Jan 2015.
Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911–30.
Palacios C, Gonzalez L. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;144:138–45.
Sahu M, Bhatia V, Aggarwal A, Rawat V, Saxena P, Pandey A, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in rural girls and pregnant women despite abundant sunshine in northern India. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70(5):680–4.
Binkley N, Novotny R, Krueger D, Kawahara T, Daida YG, Lensmeyer G, et al. Low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(6):2130–5.
Gilbert-Diamond D, Baylin A, Mora-Plazas M, Marin C, Arsenault JE, Hughes MD, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and anthropometric indicators of adiposity in school-age children: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(6):1446–51.
Flores M, Macias N, Lozada A, Sanchez LM, Diaz E, Barquera S. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among Mexican children ages 2 y to 12 y: a national survey. Nutrition. 2013;29(5):802–4.
Suarez-Martinez EB, Perez CM, Cruz SK, Khorsandi S, Chardon C, Ferder L. Importance of vitamin D and vitamin D levels status in Puerto Ricans. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013;24(4 Suppl):38–47.
Rojroongwasinkul N, Kijboonchoo K, Wimonpeerapattana W, Purttiponthanee S, Yamborisut U, Boonpraderm A, et al. SEANUTS: the nutritional status and dietary intakes of 0.5-12-year-old Thai children. Br J Nutr. 2013;3(110 Supp):S36–44.
Houghton LA, Gray AR, Harper MJ, Winichagoon P, Pongcharoen T, Gowachirapant S, et al. Vitamin D Status among Thai School Children and the Association with 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e104825.
Chokephaibulkit K, Saksawad R, Bunupuradah T, Rungmaitree S, Phongsamart W, Lapphra K, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32(11):1237–9.
Krobtrakulchai W, Praikanahok J, Visitsunthorn N, Vichyanond P, Manonukul K, Pratumvinit B, et al. The effect of vitamin d status on pediatric asthma at a university hospital. Thailand Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2013;5(5):289–94.
Nakavachara P, Viprakasit V. Children with hemoglobin E/beta-thalassemia have a high risk of being vitamin D deficient even if they get abundant sun exposure: a study from Thailand. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(10):1683–8.
Rockell JE, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Whiting SJ, Taylor RW, Williams SM, et al. Season and ethnicity are determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in New Zealand children aged 5–14 y. J Nutr. 2005;135(11):2602–8.
Absoud M, Cummins C, Lim MJ, Wassmer E, Shaw N. Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in children: a Great Britain population based study. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22179.
Alemzadeh R, Kichler J, Babar G, Calhoun M. Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: relationship with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, ethnicity, and season. Metabolism. 2008;57(2):183–91.
Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Navia-Lomban B, Lopez-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM. Associations between abdominal fat and body mass index on vitamin D status in a group of Spanish schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(5):461–7.
Zhou SJ, Skeaff M, Makrides M, Gibson R. Vitamin D status and its predictors among pre-school children in Adelaide. J Paediatr Child Health. 2014; doi: 10.1111/jpc.12770.
Earthman CP, Beckman LM, Masodkar K, Sibley SD. The link between obesity and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations: considerations and implications. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(3):387–96.
Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):690–3.
Konradsen S, Ag H, Lindberg F, Hexeberg S, Jorde R. Serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47(2):87–91.
Chung IH, Kim HJ, Chung S, Yoo EG. Vitamin D deficiency in Korean children: prevalence, risk factors, and the relationship with parathyroid hormone levels. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014;19(2):86–90.
Cheng S, Tylavsky F, Kroger H, Karkkainen M, Lyytikainen A, Koistinen A, et al. Association of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations and low cortical bone density in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3):485–92.
Karaguzel G, Dilber B, Can G, Okten A, Deger O, Holick MF. Seasonal vitamin D status of healthy schoolchildren and predictors of low vitamin D status. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;58(5):654–60.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(1):18–28.