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Table 1 Univariate analysis of investigated parameters, according to vitamin D status (n = 159)

From: Hypovitaminosis D in healthy children in Central Thailand: prevalence and risk factors

Parameters Hypovitaminosis D (< 75 nmol/L) Vitamin D sufficiency (≥ 75 nmol/L) P-value Crude OR (95% CI)
n Mean ± SD or number (%) n Mean ± SD or number (%)
Age (years) 126 9.86 ± 1.54 33 9.79 ± 1.62 0.82 1.03 (0.81, 1.32)
Female sex 126 87 (69.0%) 33 19 (57.6%) 0.22 1.64 (0.75, 3.61)
Household income 120   31    
≤ 20,000 THB/month   52 (43.3%)   15 (48.4%) 0.61 1
> 20,000 THB/month   68 (56.7%)   16 (51.6%) - 1.23 (0.56, 2.71)
Income(I):expense(E) 94   25    
I < E   27 (28.7%)   4 (16%) 0.54 1.52 (0.40, 5.78)
I  E   36 (38.3%)   14 (56%) 0.30 0.58 (0.21, 1.62)
I > E   31 (33%)   7 (28%) - 1
Birth weight 108   28    
< 2.5 kilograms   7 (6.5%)   4 (14.3%) 0.19 0.42 (0.11, 1.54)
≥ 2.5 kilograms   101 (93.5%)   24 (85.7%) - 1
Allergic diseases 122 20 (16.4%) 32 4 (12.5%) 0.59 1.37 (0.43, 4.34)
Hospitalization 122 40 (32.8%) 31 7 (22.6%) 0.28 1.67 (0.67, 4.21)
Feeding during the first 120   31    
6 months       
Breastfeeding only   39 (32.5%)   7 (22.6%) - 1
Infant formula only   11 (9.2%)   5 (16.1%) 0.17 0.40 (0.11, 1.49)
Combination   70 (58.3%)   19 (61.3%) 0.39 0.66 (0.26, 1.71)
Sun exposure       
%BSA exposed x 94 238 ± 388 29 179 ± 266 0.45 1.00 (0.999, 1.002)
hrs/wk       
Hours/wk 96 8.1 ± 9.9 29 6.5 ± 8.0 0.43 1.02 (0.97, 1.08)
BMI percentile 126 56.7 ± 33.9 33 42.6 ± 36.0 0.04 1.01 (1.00, 1.02)
Waist circumference (cm) 126 66.3 ± 11.5 33 62.3 ± 9.1 0.07 1.04 (0.997, 1.08)
Waist-to-hip ratio 126   33    
< 0.84   66 (52.4%)   22 (66.7%) - 1
≥ 0.84   60 (47.6%)   11 (33.3%) 0.15 1.82 (0.81, 4.06)
Body fat percentile 126 36.9 ± 37.8 33 24.7 ± 36.0 0.10 1.01 (0.998, 1.02)
Bone mass (kg) 117 1.45 ± 0.59 31 1.33 ± 0.48 0.29 1.47 (0.72, 3.04)
Muscle mass (kg) 117 28.2 ± 7.27 31 26.2 ± 6.61 0.18 1.04 (0.98, 1.11)
Corrected calcium (mmol/L) 125 2.37 ± 0.06 33 2.36 ± 0.05 0.73 3.06 (0.01, 1943)
Phosphate (mmol/L) 125 1.39 ± 0.16 33 1.40 ± 0.14 0.98 0.96 (0.08, 11.5)
Mg (mmol/L) 125 0.85 ± 0.05 33 0.86 ± 0.05 0.42 0.04 (0.01, 122)
PTH (pmol/L) 126 4.34 ± 1.38 33 3.78 ± 1.25 0.04 1.40 (1.02, 1.94)
Albumin (g/L) 125 45.9 ± 2.36 33 45.9 ± 2.37 0.98 1.00 (0.85, 1.18)