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Table 1 Univariate analysis of investigated parameters, according to vitamin D status (n = 159)

From: Hypovitaminosis D in healthy children in Central Thailand: prevalence and risk factors

Parameters

Hypovitaminosis D (< 75 nmol/L)

Vitamin D sufficiency (≥ 75 nmol/L)

P-value

Crude OR (95% CI)

n

Mean ± SD or number (%)

n

Mean ± SD or number (%)

Age (years)

126

9.86 ± 1.54

33

9.79 ± 1.62

0.82

1.03 (0.81, 1.32)

Female sex

126

87 (69.0%)

33

19 (57.6%)

0.22

1.64 (0.75, 3.61)

Household income

120

 

31

   

≤ 20,000 THB/month

 

52 (43.3%)

 

15 (48.4%)

0.61

1

> 20,000 THB/month

 

68 (56.7%)

 

16 (51.6%)

-

1.23 (0.56, 2.71)

Income(I):expense(E)

94

 

25

   

I < E

 

27 (28.7%)

 

4 (16%)

0.54

1.52 (0.40, 5.78)

I  E

 

36 (38.3%)

 

14 (56%)

0.30

0.58 (0.21, 1.62)

I > E

 

31 (33%)

 

7 (28%)

-

1

Birth weight

108

 

28

   

< 2.5 kilograms

 

7 (6.5%)

 

4 (14.3%)

0.19

0.42 (0.11, 1.54)

≥ 2.5 kilograms

 

101 (93.5%)

 

24 (85.7%)

-

1

Allergic diseases

122

20 (16.4%)

32

4 (12.5%)

0.59

1.37 (0.43, 4.34)

Hospitalization

122

40 (32.8%)

31

7 (22.6%)

0.28

1.67 (0.67, 4.21)

Feeding during the first

120

 

31

   

6 months

      

Breastfeeding only

 

39 (32.5%)

 

7 (22.6%)

-

1

Infant formula only

 

11 (9.2%)

 

5 (16.1%)

0.17

0.40 (0.11, 1.49)

Combination

 

70 (58.3%)

 

19 (61.3%)

0.39

0.66 (0.26, 1.71)

Sun exposure

      

%BSA exposed x

94

238 ± 388

29

179 ± 266

0.45

1.00 (0.999, 1.002)

hrs/wk

      

Hours/wk

96

8.1 ± 9.9

29

6.5 ± 8.0

0.43

1.02 (0.97, 1.08)

BMI percentile

126

56.7 ± 33.9

33

42.6 ± 36.0

0.04

1.01 (1.00, 1.02)

Waist circumference (cm)

126

66.3 ± 11.5

33

62.3 ± 9.1

0.07

1.04 (0.997, 1.08)

Waist-to-hip ratio

126

 

33

   

< 0.84

 

66 (52.4%)

 

22 (66.7%)

-

1

≥ 0.84

 

60 (47.6%)

 

11 (33.3%)

0.15

1.82 (0.81, 4.06)

Body fat percentile

126

36.9 ± 37.8

33

24.7 ± 36.0

0.10

1.01 (0.998, 1.02)

Bone mass (kg)

117

1.45 ± 0.59

31

1.33 ± 0.48

0.29

1.47 (0.72, 3.04)

Muscle mass (kg)

117

28.2 ± 7.27

31

26.2 ± 6.61

0.18

1.04 (0.98, 1.11)

Corrected calcium (mmol/L)

125

2.37 ± 0.06

33

2.36 ± 0.05

0.73

3.06 (0.01, 1943)

Phosphate (mmol/L)

125

1.39 ± 0.16

33

1.40 ± 0.14

0.98

0.96 (0.08, 11.5)

Mg (mmol/L)

125

0.85 ± 0.05

33

0.86 ± 0.05

0.42

0.04 (0.01, 122)

PTH (pmol/L)

126

4.34 ± 1.38

33

3.78 ± 1.25

0.04

1.40 (1.02, 1.94)

Albumin (g/L)

125

45.9 ± 2.36

33

45.9 ± 2.37

0.98

1.00 (0.85, 1.18)