WHO: Air quality guidelines for Europe. 1987, Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe
WHO: Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005: particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. 2006, Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe
Spickett JT, Brown HL, Rumchev K: Climate change and air quality: the potential impact on health. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2011, 23: 37S-45S. 10.1177/1010539511398114.
EPA: US: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter (Final Report). 2009, Washington: US Environmental Protection Agency
Katsouyanni K, Touloumi G, Samoli E, Gryparis A, Le Tertre A, Monopolis Y, Rossi G, Zmirou D, Ballester F, Boumghar A, et al: Confounding and effect modification in the short-term effects of ambient particles on total mortality: results from 29 European cities within the APHEA2 project. Epidemiology. 2001, 12: 521-531. 10.1097/00001648-200109000-00011.
Sunyer J, Ballester F, Tertre AL, Atkinson R, Ayres JG, Forastiere F, Forsberg B, Vonk JM, Bisanti L, Tenias JM, et al: The association of daily sulfur dioxide air pollution levels with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Europe (The Aphea-II study). Eur Heart J. 2003, 24: 752-760. 10.1016/S0195-668X(02)00808-4.
Samet JM, Zeger SL, Dominici F, Curriero F, Coursac I, Dockery DW, Schwartz J, Zanobetti A: The national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Part II: morbidity and mortality from air pollution in the united states. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2000, 94: 5-70. discussion 71–79
Chen H, Goldberg MS, Villeneuve PJ: A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases. Rev Environ Health. 2008, 23: 243-297.
Baldacci S, Viegi G: Respiratory effects of environmental pollution: epidemiological data. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2002, 57: 156-160.
WHO: Health aspects of air pollution: results from the WHO project “Systematic review of health aspects of air pollution in Europe”. 2004, Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe
Lai HK, Hedley AJ, Repace J, So C, Lu QY, McGhee SM, Fielding R, Wong CM: Lung function and exposure to workplace second-hand smoke during exemptions from smoking ban legislation: an exposure-response relationship based on indoor PM2.5 and urinary cotinine levels. Thorax. 2011, 66: 615-623. 10.1136/thx.2011.160291.
Lai HK, Tsang H, Chau J, Lee CH, McGhee SM, Hedley AJ, Wong CM: Health impact assessment of marine emissions in pearl river delta region. Mar Pollut Bull. 2013, 66: 158-163. 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.09.029.
Wong CM, Vichit-Vadakan N, Kan H, Qian Z: Public health and Air pollution in asia (PAPA): a multicity study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality. Environ Health Perspect. 2008, 116: 1195-1202. 10.1289/ehp.11257.
Kan HD, Chen BH, Chen CH, Wang BY, Fu QY: Establishment of exposure-response functions of air particulate matter and adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Biomed Environ Sci. 2005, 18: 159-163.
Zhou Y, Fu JS, Zhuang G, Levy JI: Risk-based prioritization among air pollution control strategies in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Environ Health Perspect. 2010, 118: 1204-1210. 10.1289/ehp.1001991.
Aunan K, Pan XC: Exposure-response functions for health effects of ambient air pollution applicable for China – a meta-analysis. Sci Total Environ. 2004, 329: 3-16. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.03.008.
Huang W, Wang HY, Wang Q: Association between inhalable particulate matter and mortality in China: a meta-analysis. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011, 45: 1031-1035.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group P: Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009, 339: b2535-10.1136/bmj.b2535.
Woodward M: Meta-analysis (Chapter 12). Epidemiology: study design and data analysis. 2nd edition. 2005, Chapman & Hall/CRC: Boca Raton, Fla
Anderson HR, Atkinson RW, Peacock JL, Marston L, Konstantinou K: Meta-analysis of time-series studies and panel studies of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3): report of a WHO task group. 2004, Copenhagen: World Health Organization
Katsouyanni K, Samet JM, Anderson HR, Atkinson R, Le Tertre A, Medina S, Samoli E, Touloumi G, Burnett RT, Krewski D, et al: Air pollution and health: a European and North American approach (APHENA). Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2009, 5-90. HEI Report number: 142 [http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=327]
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C: Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997, 315: 629-634. 10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629.
WHO: Health effects of air pollution: an overview. Air Quality Guidelines Global Update 2005: particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. 2006, : WHO Regional Office for Europe, [http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf]
Lai HK, Wong CM, McGhee SM, Hedley AJ: Assessment of the health impacts and economic burden arising from proposed New Air quality objectives in a high pollution environment. Open Epidemiol J. 2011, 4: 106-122. 10.2174/1874297101104010106.
Chen R, Pan G, Kan H, Tan J, Song W, Wu Z, Xu X, Xu Q, Jiang C, Chen B: Ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Anshan, China: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. Sci Total Environ. 2010, 408: 6086-6091. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.09.018.
Chen R, Kan H, Chen B, Huang W, Bai Z, Song G, Pan G, Group oBotCC: Association of particulate air pollution with daily mortality: the china air pollution and health effects study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012, 175: 1173-1181. 10.1093/aje/kwr425.
Chen R, Samoli E, Wong CM, Huang W, Wang Z, Chen B, Kan H, CCG: Associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 17 chinese cities: the china Air pollution and health effects study (CAPES). Environ Int. 2012, 45C: 32-38.
Xu X, Gao J, Dockery DW, Chen Y: Air pollution and daily mortality in residential areas of Beijing, China. Arch Environ Health. 1994, 49: 216-222. 10.1080/00039896.1994.9937470.
Venners SA, Wang B, Xu Z, Schlatter Y, Wang L, Xu X: Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and daily mortality in Chongqing, China. Environ Health Perspect. 2003, 111: 562-567.
Tao Y, Huang W, Huang X, Zhong L, Lu SE, Li Y, Dai L, Zhang Y, Zhu T: Estimated acute effects of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide on mortality in the Pearl River Delta of southern China. Environ Health Perspect. 2012, 120: 393-398.
Wong CM, Thach TQ, Chau PY, Chan EK, Chung RY, Ou CQ, Yang L, Peiris JS, Thomas GN, Lam TH, et al: Part 4. Interaction between air pollution and respiratory viruses: time-series study of daily mortality and hospital admissions in Hong Kong. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2010, 283-362. HEI Report number: 154 [http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=348]
Tsai SS, Huang CH, Goggins WB, Wu TN, Yang CY: Relationship between air pollution and daily mortality in a tropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2003, 66: 1341-1349. 10.1080/15287390306389.
Kan H, London SJ, Chen G, Zhang Y, Song G, Zhao N, Jiang L, Chen B: Differentiating the effects of fine and coarse particles on daily mortality in Shanghai, China. Environ Int. 2007, 33: 376-384. 10.1016/j.envint.2006.12.001.
Kan H, Chen B, Zhao N, London SJ, Song G, Chen G, Zhang Y, Jiang L, Committee HEIHR: Part 1. A time-series study of ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Shanghai, China. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2010, 17-78. HEI Report number: 154 (http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=348)
Yang C, Yang H, Guo S, Wang Z, Xu X, Duan X, Kan H: Alternative ozone metrics and daily mortality in Suzhou: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES). Sci Total Environ. 2012, 426: 83-89.
Tsai DH, Wang JL, Chuang KJ, Chan CC: Traffic-related air pollution and cardiovascular mortality in central Taiwan. Sci Total Environ. 2010, 408: 1818-1823. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.01.044.
Yang CY, Chang CC, Chuang HY, Tsai SS, Wu TN, Ho CK: Relationship between air pollution and daily mortality in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan. Environ Int. 2004, 30: 519-523. 10.1016/j.envint.2003.10.006.
Zhang YS, Zhou MG, Jia YP, Hu YS, Zhang JL, Jiang GH, Pan XC: Time-series analysis on the association between gaseous air pollutants and daily mortality in urban residents in Tianjin. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2010, 31: 1158-1162.
Qian Z, He Q, Lin HM, Kong L, Zhou D, Liang S, Zhu Z, Liao D, Liu W, Bentley CM, et al: Part 2. Association of daily mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high temperature in Wuhan, China. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2010, 91-217. HEI Report number: 154 [http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=348]
Dai H, Song W, Gao X, Chen L: Study on relationship between ambient PM10, PM2.5 pollution and daily mortality in a district in Shanghai. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004, 33: 293-297.
Guo Y, Barnett AG, Zhang Y, Tong S, Yu W, Pan X: The short-term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in Tianjin, China: comparison of time series and case-crossover analyses. Sci Total Environ. 2010, 409: 300-306. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.10.013.
Zhang YS, Zhou MG, Jia YP, Hu YS, Zhang JL, Jiang GH, Pan XC: Time-series analysis of association between inhalable particulate matter and daily mortality among urban residents in Tianjin. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2010, 31: 544-548.
Zhang YP, Zhang ZQ, Liu XH, Zhang XP, Feng BQ, Li HP: Concentration-response relationship between particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Taiyuan. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007, 39: 153-157.
Wong TW, Tam WS, Yu TS, Wong AH: Associations between daily mortalities from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and air pollution in Hong Kong, China. Occup Environ Med. 2002, 59: 30-35. 10.1136/oem.59.1.30.
Kan H, Wong CM, Vichit-Vadakan N, Qian Z, Teams PP: Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: the public health and Air pollution in asia (PAPA) study. Environ Res. 2010, 110: 258-264. 10.1016/j.envres.2010.01.006.
Kan H, Jia J, Chen B: The association of daily diabetes mortality and outdoor air pollution in Shanghai, China. J Environ Health. 2004, 67: 21-26.
Chen R, Chu C, Tan J, Cao J, Song W, Xu X, Jiang C, Ma W, Yang C, Chen B, et al: Ambient air pollution and hospital admission in Shanghai, China. J Hazard Mater. 2010, 181: 234-240. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.002.
Bell ML, Levy JK, Lin Z: The effect of sandstorms and air pollution on cause-specific hospital admissions in Taipei, Taiwan. Occup Environ Med. 2008, 65: 104-111. 10.1136/oem.2006.031500.
Wong TW, Lau TS, Yu TS, Neller A, Wong SL, Tam W, Pang SW: Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong. Occup Environ Med. 1999, 56: 679-683. 10.1136/oem.56.10.679.
Wong CM, Atkinson RW, Anderson HR, Hedley AJ, Ma S, Chau PY, Lam TH: A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared. Environ Health Perspect. 2002, 110: 67-77.
Ko FW, Tam W, Wong TW, Lai CK, Wong GW, Leung TF, Ng SS, Hui DS: Effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization rates in different age groups in Hong Kong. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007, 37: 1312-1319. 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02791.x.
Cao J, Li W, Tan J, Song W, Xu X, Jiang C, Chen G, Chen R, Ma W, Chen B, Kan H: Association of ambient air pollution with hospital outpatient and emergency room visits in Shanghai, China. Sci Total Environ. 2009, 407: 5531-5536. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.07.021.
Guo YM, Liu LQ, Chen JM, Yang MJ, Wich M, Pan XC: Association between the concentration of particulate matters and the hospital emergency room visits for circulatory diseases: a case-crossover study. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2008, 29: 1064-1068.
Guo Y, Jia Y, Pan X, Liu L, Wichmann HE: The association between fine particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ. 2009, 407: 4826-4830. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.022.
Su C, Guo YM, Franck U, Pan XC: Association between ambient air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases: a case-crossover study. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2010, 31: 845-849.
Leitte AM, Schlink U, Herbarth O, Wiedensohler A, Pan XC, Hu M, Richter M, Wehner B, Tuch T, Wu Z, et al: Size-segregated particle number concentrations and respiratory emergency room visits in Beijing, China. Environ Health Perspect. 2011, 119: 508-513. 10.1289/ehp.1104385R.
Guo Y, Tong S, Li S, Barnett AG, Yu W, Zhang Y, Pan X: Gaseous air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China: a time-stratified case-crossover study. Environ Health. 2010, 9: 57-10.1186/1476-069X-9-57.
Guo Y, Tong S, Zhang Y, Barnett AG, Jia Y, Pan X: The relationship between particulate air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ. 2010, 408: 4446-4450. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.042.
Hwang BF, Lee YL, Jaakkola JJ: Air pollution and stillbirth: a population-based case–control study in Taiwan. Environ Health Perspect. 2011, 119: 1345-1349. 10.1289/ehp.1003056.
Jiang LL, Zhang YH, Song GX, Chen GH, Chen BH, Zhao NQ, Kan HD: A time series analysis of outdoor air pollution and preterm birth in Shanghai, China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2007, 20: 426-431.
Wang XB, Ding H, Ryan L, Xu XP: Association between air pollution and low birth weight: a community-based study. Environ Health Persp. 1997, 105: 514-520. 10.1289/ehp.97105514.
Lin CM, Li CY, Yang GY, Mao IF: Association between maternal exposure to elevated ambient sulfur dioxide during pregnancy and term low birth weight. Environ Res. 2004, 96: 41-50. 10.1016/j.envres.2004.03.005.
Zhang P, Dong G, Sun B, Zhang L, Chen X, Ma N, Yu F, Guo H, Huang H, Lee YL, et al: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease in Shenyang. China. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e20827-10.1371/journal.pone.0020827.
Dong GH, Zhang P, Sun B, Zhang L, Chen X, Ma N, Yu F, Guo H, Huang H, Lee YL, et al: Long-term exposure to ambient Air pollution and respiratory disease mortality in shenyang, china: a 12-year population-based retrospective cohort study. Respiration. 2011, 85: 360-368.
Cao J, Yang C, Li J, Chen R, Chen B, Gu D, Kan H: Association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in China: a cohort study. J Hazard Mater. 2011, 186: 1594-1600. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.036.
WHO: Health effects of transport-related air pollution. Edited by: Krzyzanowski M, Kuna-Dibbert B, Schneider J. 2005, Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, [http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/74715/E86650.pdf]
HEI: Outdoor Air Pollution and Health in the Developing Countries of Asia: A Comprehensive Review. Special Report 18. 2010, Boston, MA: International Scientific Oversight Committee Health Effects Institute
Rainham DG, Smoyer-Tomic KE, Sheridan SC, Burnett RT: Synoptic weather patterns and modification of the association between air pollution and human mortality. Int J Environ Health Res. 2005, 15: 347-360. 10.1080/09603120500289119.
Qian Z, Lin HM, Stewart WF, Kong L, Xu F, Zhou D, Zhu Z, Liang S, Chen W, Shah N, et al: Seasonal pattern of the acute mortality effects of air pollution. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2010, 60: 481-488. 10.3155/1047-32184.108.40.2061.
Kan H, London SJ, Chen G, Zhang Y, Song G, Zhao N, Jiang L, Chen B: Season, sex, age, and education as modifiers of the effects of outdoor air pollution on daily mortality in Shanghai, China: the public health and air pollution in asia (PAPA) study. Environ Health Perspect. 2008, 116: 1183-1188. 10.1289/ehp.10851.
Peng RD, Dominici F, Pastor-Barriuso R, Zeger SL, Samet JM: Seasonal analyses of air pollution and mortality in 100 US cities. Am J Epidemiol. 2005, 161: 585-594. 10.1093/aje/kwi075.
Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Verhoeff A, van Wijnen J, Fischer P: Daily mortality and air pollution in The Netherlands. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2000, 50: 1380-1389. 10.1080/10473289.2000.10464182.
Smith KR, Peel JL: Mind the Gap. Environ Health Persp. 2010, 118: 1643-1645. 10.1289/ehp.1002517.
Liistro G, Vanwelde C, Vincken W, Vandevoorde J, Verleden G, Buffels J: Technical and functional assessment of 10 office spirometers - a multicenter comparative study. Chest. 2006, 130: 657-665. 10.1378/chest.130.3.657.
Dockery DW, Speizer FE, Ferris BG, Ware JH, Louis TA, Spiro A: Cumulative and reversible effects of lifetime smoking on simple tests of lung-function in adults. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988, 137: 286-292. 10.1164/ajrccm/137.2.286.
Flouris AD, Metsios GS, Carrillo AE, Jamurtas AZ, Gourgoulianis K, Kiropoulos T, Tzatzarakis MN, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y: Acute and short-term effects of secondhand smoke on lung function and cytokine production. Am J Resp Crit Care. 2009, 179: 1029-1033. 10.1164/rccm.200812-1920OC.
Walker E, Hernandez AV, Kattan MW: Meta-analysis: its strengths and limitations. Cleve Clin J Med. 2008, 75: 431-439. 10.3949/ccjm.75.6.431.
Xu Z, Yu D, Jing L, Xu X: Air pollution and daily mortality in Shenyang, China. Arch Environ Health. 2000, 55: 115-120. 10.1080/00039890009603397.
Ko FW, Tam W, Wong TW, Chan DP, Tung AH, Lai CK, Hui DS: Temporal relationship between air pollutants and hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Hong Kong. Thorax. 2007, 62: 780-785. 10.1136/thx.2006.076166.