Beaglehole R, Bonita R, Horton R, Adams C, Alleyne G, Asaria P, Baugh V, Bekedam H, Billo N, Casswell S, Cecchini M, Colagiuri R, Colagiuri S, Collins T, Ebrahim S, Engelgau M, Galea G, Gaziano T, Geneau R, Haines A, Hospedales J, Jha P, Keeling A, Leeder S, Lincoln P, McKee M, Mackay J, Magnusson R, Moodie R, Mwatsama M, et al: Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis. Lancet. 2011, 377: 1438-1447. 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60393-0.
Bradshaw D, Groenewald P, Laubscher R, Nannan N, Nojilana B, Norman R, Pieterse D, Schneider M, Bourne DE, Timaeus IM, Dorrington R, Johnson L: Initial burden of disease estimates for South Africa, 2000. S Afr Med J. 2003, 93: 682-688.
Mayosi BM, Flisher AJ, Lalloo UG, Sitas F, Tollman SM, Bradshaw D: The burden of non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Lancet. 2009, 374: 934-947. 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61087-4.
Groeneveld IF, Proper KI, van der Beek AJ, Hildebrandt VH, van Mechelen W: Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease–a systematic review. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010, 36: 202-215. 10.5271/sjweh.2891.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, Amann M, Anderson HR, Andrews KG, Aryee M, Atkinson C, Bacchus LJ, Bahalim AN, Balakrishnan K, Balmes J, Barker-Collo S, Baxter A, Bell ML, Blore JD, Blyth F, Bonner C, Borges G, Bourne R, Boussinesq M, Brauer M, Brooks P, Bruce NG, Brunekreef B, Bryan-Hancock C, Bucello C, et al: A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012, 380: 2224-2260. 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8.
Norman R, Bradshaw D, Schneider M, Joubert J, Groenewald P, Lewin S, Steyn K, Vos T, Laubscher R, Nannan N, Nojilana B, Pieterse D, Group TSACRAC, et al: Norman et al. 2007 Comparative risk assessment. SAMJ. 2007, 97: 637-641.
Katano S, Nakamura Y, Nakamura A, Murakami Y, Tanaka T, Nakagawa H, Takebayashi T, Yamato H, Okayama A, Miura K, Okamura T, Ueshima H, HIPOP-OHP Research Group: Relationship among physical activity, smoking, drinking and clustering of the metabolic syndrome diagnostic components. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010, 17: 644-650. 10.5551/jat.3699.
McGuire KA, Janssen I, Ross R: Ability of physical activity to predict cardiovascular disease beyond commonly evaluated cardiometabolic risk factors. Am J Cardiol. 2009, 104: 1522-1526. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.07.023.
Ekblom-Bak E, Hellénius M-L, Ekblom O, Engström L-M, Ekblom B: Independent associations of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness with cardiovascular risk in adults. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010, 17: 175-180. 10.1097/HJR.0b013e32833254f2.
Plotnikoff RC, McCargar LJ, Wilson PM, Loucaides CA: Efficacy of an E-mail intervention for the promotion of physical activity and nutrition behavior in the workplace context. Am J Health Promot. 2005, 19: 422-429. 10.4278/0890-1171-19.6.422.
Pronk NP, Lowry M, Maciosek M, Gallagher J: The association between health assessment-derived summary health scores and health care costs. J Occup Environ Med. 2011, 53: 872-878. 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318223d464.
Serxner SA, Gold DB, Grossmeier JJ, Anderson DR: The relationship between health promotion program participation and medical costs: a dose response. J Occup Environ Med. 2003, 45: 1196-1200. 10.1097/01.jom.0000095002.12772.6a.
Burton WN, Chen C-Y, Conti DJ, Schultz AB, Edington DW: Measuring the relationship between employees’ health risk factors and corporate pharmaceutical expenditures. J Occup Environ Med. 2003, 45: 793-802. 10.1097/01.jom.0000079090.95532.db.
Colkesen EB, Kraaijenhagen RA, Frings-Dresen MHW, Sluiter JK, van Kalken CK, Tijssen JGP, Peters RJG: Participation in a workplace web-based health risk assessment program. Occup Med. 2011, 61: 586-589. 10.1093/occmed/kqr122.
Pronk NP, Kottke TE: Physical activity promotion as a strategic corporate priority to improve worker health and business performance. Prev Med. 2009, 49: 316-321. 10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.06.025.
Mayosi BM, Lawn JE, van Niekerk A, Bradshaw D, Abdool Karim SS, Coovadia HM: Health in South Africa: changes and challenges since 2009. Lancet. 2012, 380: 2029-2043. 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61814-5.
Rowe K, Moodley K: Patients as consumers of health care in South Africa: the ethical and legal implications. BMC Med Ethics. 2013, 14: 15-10.1186/1472-6939-14-15.
Kirigia JM, Sambo LG, Nganda B, Mwabu GM, Chatora R, Mwase T: Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women. BMC Health Serv Res. 2005, 5: 17-10.1186/1472-6963-5-17.
Ataguba JE, McIntyre D: Paying for and receiving benefits from health services in South Africa: is the health system equitable?. Health Policy Plan. 2012, 27 (Suppl 1): i35-i45. 10.1093/heapol/czs005.
Nishida C, Ko GT, Kumanyika S: Body fat distribution and noncommunicable diseases in populations: overview of the 2008 WHO Expert Consultation on Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010, 64: 2-5. 10.1038/ejcn.2009.139.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT, Roccella EJ, Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee: Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003, 42: 1206-1252. 10.1161/01.HYP.0000107251.49515.c2.
Goetzel RZ, Ozminkowski RJ, Bruno JA, Rutter KR, Isaac F, Wang S: The long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson’s Health & Wellness Program on employee health risks. J Occup Environ Med. 2002, 44: 417-424. 10.1097/00043764-200205000-00010.
Oude Hengel KM, Joling CI, Proper KI, Blatter BM, Bongers PM: A worksite prevention program for construction workers: design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2010, 10: 336-10.1186/1471-2458-10-336.
Goetzel RZ, Carls GS, Wang S, Kelly E, Mauceri E, Columbus D, Cavuoti A: The relationship between modifiable health risk factors and medical expenditures, absenteeism, short-term disability, and presenteeism among employees at novartis. J Occup Environ Med. 2009, 51: 487-499. 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31819eb902.
Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee I-M, Nieman DC, Swain DP, American College of Sports Medicine: American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011, 43: 1334-1359. 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb.
Kolbe-Alexander TL, Buckmaster C, Nossel C, Dreyer L, Bull F, Noakes TD, Lambert EV: Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening. BMC Public Health. 2008, 8: 228-10.1186/1471-2458-8-228.
Shi L, Morrison JA, Wiecha J, Horton M, Hayman LL: Healthy lifestyle factors associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk. Br J Nutr. 2011, 105: 747-754. 10.1017/S0007114510004307.
Rennie KL, McCarthy N, Yazdgerdi S, Marmot M, Brunner E: Association of the metabolic syndrome with both vigorous and moderate physical activity. Int J Epidemiol. 2003, 32: 600-606. 10.1093/ije/dyg179.
Birdee GS, Byrne DW, McGown PW, Rothman RL, Rolando LA, Holmes MC, Yarbrough MI: Relationship between physical inactivity and health characteristics among participants in an employee-wellness program. J Occup Environ Med. 2013, 55: 514-519. 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31827f37d7.
Pronk NP, Goodman MJ, O’Connor PJ, Martinson BC: Relationship between modifiable health risks and short-term health care charges. JAMA. 1999, 282: 2235-2239. 10.1001/jama.282.23.2235.
Hill RK, Thompson JW, Shaw JL, Pinidiya SD, Card-Higginson P: Self-reported health risks linked to health plan cost and age group. Am J Prev Med. 2009, 36: 468-474. 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.01.034.
Prince SA, Adamo KB, Hamel ME, Hardt J, Connor Gorber S, Tremblay M: A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008, 5: 56-10.1186/1479-5868-5-56.
Dishman RK, Washburn RA, Schoeller DA: Measurement of physical activity. Quest. 2001, 53: 295-309. 10.1080/00336297.2001.10491746.