Li R, Li W, Lun Z, Zhang H, Sun Z, Kanu JS, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in mainland China: a meta-analysis of published studies. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:296.
Mottillo S, Filion KB, Genest J, Joseph L, Pilote L, Poirier P, et al. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(14):1113–32.
González-Muniesa P, Mártinez-González MA, Hu FB, Després JP, Matsuzawa Y, Loos RJF, et al. Obesity Nature reviews Disease primers. 2017;3:17034.
Nishizawa H, Shimomura I. Population approaches targeting metabolic syndrome focusing on Japanese trials. Nutrients. 2019;11(6).
Ross R. Advances in the application of imaging methods in applied and clinical physiology. Acta Diabetol. 2003;40(Suppl 1):S45–50.
Elagizi A, Kachur S, Lavie CJ, Carbone S, Pandey A, Ortega FB, et al. An overview and update on obesity and the obesity paradox in cardiovascular diseases. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018;61(2):142–50.
Hou X, Chen P, Hu G, Chen Y, Chen S, Wu J, et al. Distribution and related factors of cardiometabolic disease stage based on body mass index level in Chinese adults-the National Diabetes and metabolic disorders survey. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2018;34(2).
Smith SC Jr, Haslam D. Abdominal obesity, waist circumference and cardio-metabolic risk: awareness among primary care physicians, the general population and patients at risk--the Shape of the Nations survey. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23(1):29–47.
Ashwell M, Gunn P, Gibson S. Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2012;13(3):275–86.
Alshamiri MQ, Mohd AHF, Al-Qahtani SS, Alghalayini KA, Al-Qattan OM, El-Shaer F. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting coronary artery disease compared to body mass index and waist circumference in a single center from Saudi Arabia. Cardiol Res Pract. 2020;2020:4250793.
Wang F, Chen Y, Chang Y, Sun G, Sun Y. New anthropometric indices or old ones: which perform better in estimating cardiovascular risks in Chinese adults. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018;18(1):14.
Motamed N, Perumal D, Zamani F, Ashrafi H, Haghjoo M, Saeedian FS, et al. Conicity index and waist-to-hip ratio are superior obesity indices in predicting 10-year cardiovascular risk among men and women. Clin Cardiol. 2015;38(9):527–34.
Shin KA, Kim YJ. Usefulness of surrogate markers of body fat distribution for predicting metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Korean populations. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy. 2019;12:2251–9.
Wang A, Tian X, Zuo Y, Chen S, Meng X, Wu S, et al. Change in triglyceride-glucose index predicts the risk of cardiovascular disease in the general population: a prospective cohort study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2021;20(1):113.
Barzegar N, Tohidi M, Hasheminia M, Azizi F, Hadaegh F. The impact of triglyceride-glucose index on incident cardiovascular events during 16 years of follow-up: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2020;19(1):155.
Li W, Song F, Wang X, Wang L, Wang D, Yin X, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly adults in China: current status and temporal trends. Ann Med. 2018;50(4):345–53.
Ying X, Yang S, Li S, Su M, Wang N, Chen Y, et al. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its sex-specific association with socioeconomic status in rural China: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):2033.
Ma A, Fang K, Dong J, Dong Z. Prevalence and related factors of metabolic syndrome in Beijing, China (year 2017). Obes Facts. 2020;13(6):538–47.
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 1992, and changes in definition of smoking. Jama. 1994;272(1):14–6.
Sun K, Ren M, Liu D, Wang C, Yang C, Yan L. Alcohol consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2014;33(4):596–602.
Krakauer NY, Krakauer JC. A new body shape index predicts mortality hazard independently of body mass index. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e39504.
Valdez R. A simple model-based index of abdominal adiposity. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44(9):955–6.
Kahn HS. The "lipid accumulation product" performs better than the body mass index for recognizing cardiovascular risk: a population-based comparison. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2005;5:26.
Simental-Mendía LE, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. The product of fasting glucose and triglycerides as surrogate for identifying insulin resistance in apparently healthy subjects. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2008;6(4):299–304.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; world heart federation; international atherosclerosis society; and International Association for the Study of obesity. Circulation. 2009;120(16):1640–5.
Correa-Rodríguez M, González-Ruíz K, Rincón-Pabón D, Izquierdo M, García-Hermoso A, Agostinis-Sobrinho C, et al. Normal-weight obesity is associated with increased Cardiometabolic risk in young adults. Nutrients. 2020;12(4).
Manne-Goehler J, Baisley K, Vandormael A, Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Herbst K, et al. BMI and all-cause mortality in a population-based cohort in rural South Africa. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2020;28(12):2414–23.
Hwang YC, Hayashi T, Fujimoto WY, Kahn SE, Leonetti DL, McNeely MJ, et al. Visceral abdominal fat accumulation predicts the conversion of metabolically healthy obese subjects to an unhealthy phenotype. Int J Obes. 2005;39(9):1365–70.
Chen Y, Yang Y, Jiang H, Liang X, Wang Y, Lu W. Associations of BMI and waist circumference with all-cause mortality: a 22-year cohort study. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2019;27(4):662–9.
Pasdar Y, Moradi S, Moludi J, Saiedi S, Moradinazar M, Hamzeh B, et al. Waist-to-height ratio is a better discriminator of cardiovascular disease than other anthropometric indicators in Kurdish adults. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):16228.
Wu L, Zhu W, Qiao Q, Huang L, Li Y, Chen L. Novel and traditional anthropometric indices for identifying metabolic syndrome in non-overweight/obese adults. Nutr Metabol. 2021;18(1):3.
Gu Z, Zhu P, Wang Q, He H, Xu J, Zhang L, et al. Obesity and lipid-related parameters for predicting metabolic syndrome in Chinese elderly population. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17(1):289.
Ching YK, Chin YS, Appukutty M, Gan WY, Chan YM. Comparisons of conventional and novel anthropometric obesity indices to predict metabolic syndrome among vegetarians in Malaysia. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):20861.
Du T, Yuan G, Zhang M, Zhou X, Sun X, Yu X. Clinical usefulness of lipid ratios, visceral adiposity indicators, and the triglycerides and glucose index as risk markers of insulin resistance. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13:146.
Chiu TH, Huang YC, Chiu H, Wu PY, Chiou HC, Huang JC, Chen SC: Comparison of various obesity-related indices for identification of metabolic syndrome: a population-based study from Taiwan biobank. Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) 2020, 10(12).
Raimi TH, Dele-Ojo BF, Dada SA, Fadare JO, Ajayi DD, Ajayi EA, et al. Triglyceride-glucose index and related parameters predicted metabolic syndrome in Nigerians. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2021;19(2):76–82.
Ji M, Zhang S, An R. Effectiveness of a body shape index (ABSI) in predicting chronic diseases and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2018;19(5):737–59.
Zhou C, Zhan L, Yuan J, Tong X, Peng Y, Zha Y. Comparison of visceral, general and central obesity indices in the prediction of metabolic syndrome in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Eating and weight disorders : EWD. 2020;25(3):727–34.