Mathers BM, Degenhardt L, Phillips B, Wiessing L, Hickman M, Strathdee SA, et al. Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review. Lancet. 2008;372(9651):1733–45.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report 2020 2020 [accessed on 16 December 2020]. Available from: https://wdr.unodc.org/wdr2020/field/WDR20_Booklet_2.pdf.
World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS 30 November 2020 [accessed on 3 December 2020]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids.
Panda S. HIV in IDUs: Should we bother? Int J Drug Policy. 2003;14(1):83–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-3959(02)00212-8.PubMedPMID:2003-02937-009.
Department of Health and Family Welfare MoHaFW, Government of India. Annual Report 2019–2020 2020. Available from: https://main.mohfw.gov.in/sites/default/files/Annual%20Report%202019-2020%20English.pdf.
Organisation NAC. HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2016–2017 Technical Brief 2016–2017. Available from: http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/HIV%20SENTINEL%20SURVEILLANCE_06_12_2017_0.pdf.
National AIDS Control Organisation. National Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS) 2014–2015 2015 [Accessed 6 Dec 2020]. Available from: http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/IBBS%20Report%202014-15.pdf.
National AIDS Control Organisation. NACO HIV Estimations 2017, Technical Report 2017 [Accessed 5 Dec 2020]. Available from: http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/HIV%20Estimations%202017%20Report_1.pdf.
Chelleng P, Borkakoty B, Chetia M, Das H, Mahanta J. Risk of hepatitis C infection among injection drug users in Mizoram, India. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128(5):640.
Dorabjee J, Samson L. A multi-centre rapid assessment of injecting drug use in India. Int J Drug Policy. 2000;11(1–2):99–112.
Ambekar A, Tripathi B. Size estimation of injecting drug use in Punjab and Haryana. UNAIDS. 2008.
National AIDS Control Organisation. Injecting drug use. Strategy Report for NACP IV Planning 2012. Available from: http://www.naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/Strategy%20document%20Injecting%20Drug%20Use_final%20V2.pdf.
Alliance India. Are harm reduction strategies working? June 26, 2014 [Accessed 17 Jan 2021]. Available from: http://www.allianceindia.org/harm-reduction-strategies-working/.
Goswami P, Medhi GK, Armstrong G, Setia MS, Mathew S, Thongamba G, et al. An assessment of an HIV prevention intervention among People Who Inject Drugs in the states of Manipur and Nagaland. India Int J Drug Policy. 2014;25(5):853–64.
Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ. 2021;372: n71. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n71.
Organization WH. Millenium Development Goals 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/millennium-development-goals-(mdgs).
Programme NAC. NACP III. To Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic in India 2012. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/countryplanningcycles/sites/default/files/country_docs/India/hiv_india_v3.pdf.
National Institutes of Health (NIH): National Heart LaBI. Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. 2020. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools.
Ganesh B, Mosoniro K, Vasna J, Elangovan A, Santhakumar A, Shobini R. Factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and self-assessed risk to human immunodeficiency virus among injecting drug users in Manipur. India Indian J Public Health. 2020;64(Supplement):S61–6. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJPH_61_20 PubMed PMID: 32295958.
Kumar P, Sangal B, Ramanathan S, Ammassari S, Venkatesh SR. Unsafe injecting practices, sexual risk behaviours and determinants of HIV among men who inject drugs: Results from Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance in India. Int J STD AIDS. 2018;29(11):1066–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462418769808 PubMed PMID: 29747557.
Cepeda JA, Solomon SS, Srikrishnan AK, McFall AM, Kumar MS, Vasudevan CK, et al. Injection Drug Network Characteristics Are Important Markers of HIV Risk Behavior and Lack of Viral Suppression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75(3):257–64. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001372 PubMed PMID: 28328550.
McFall AM, Solomon SS, Lucas GM, Celentano DD, Srikrishnan AK, Kumar MS, et al. Epidemiology of HIV and hepatitis C infection among women who inject drugs in Northeast India: a respondent-driven sampling study. Addiction. 2017;112(8):1480–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13821 PubMed PMID: 28317210.
Lucas GM, Solomon SS, Srikrishnan AK, Agrawal A, Iqbal S, Laeyendecker O, et al. High HIV burden among people who inject drugs in 15 Indian cities. AIDS. 2015;29(5):619–28. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000000592 PubMed PMID: 25715105.
Mehta SH, Srikrishnan AK, Noble E, Vasudevan CK, Solomon S, Kumar MS, et al. Emergence of cocaine and methamphetamine injection among HIV-positive injection drug users in Northern and Western India. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;135(1):160–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.002 PubMed PMID: 52935490.
Panda S, Roy T, Pahari S, Mehraa J, Sharma N, Singh G, et al. Alarming epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus among injection drug users in the northwestern bordering state of Punjab, India: prevalence and correlates. Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25(8):596–606. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462413515659 PubMed PMID: 24352120.
Sarna A, Tun W, Sharma V, Sebastian M, Madan I, Yadav A, et al. High uptake of HIV testing in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, India: prevalence and correlates of HIV infection. Aids Behav. 2013;17(7):2479–89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-013-0442-z PubMed PMID: 23474594.
Chakrapani V, Newman PA, Shunmugam M, Dubrow R. Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: A mixed methods investigation. Harm Reduction J. 2011;8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7517-8-9. PubMed PMID: 2011–14845–001.
Solomon SS, Srikrishnan AK, Mehta SH, Vasudevan CK, Murugavel KG, Thamburaj E, et al. High prevalence of HIV, HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection and risk behaviors among IDUs in Chennai, India: a cause for concern. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1999). 2008;49(3):327.
Panda S, Kumar MS, Lokabiraman S, Jayashree K, Satagopan MC, Solomon S, et al. Risk factors for HIV infection in injection drug users and evidence for onward transmission of HIV to their sexual partners in Chennai. India J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39(1):9–15 PubMed PMID: 15851908.
Ray Saraswati L, Sarna A, Sebastian MP, Sharma V, Madan I, Thior I, et al. HIV, Hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs: high prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C RNA positive infections observed in Delhi. India BMC Public Health. 2015;15:726. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2003-z PubMed PMID: 26223866.
Armstrong G, Medhi GK, Mahanta J, Paranjape RS, Kermode M. Undiagnosed HIV among people who inject drugs in Manipur. India AIDS Care. 2015;27(3):288–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2014.972322 PubMed PMID: 25345544.
Saraswati LR, Sarna A, Sebastian MP, Sharma V, Madan I, Thior I, et al. HIV, Hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs: high prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C RNA positive infections observed in Delhi. India BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):1–11.
Kermode M, Nuken A, Medhi GK, Akoijam BS, Sharma HU, Mahanta J. High burden of hepatitis C & HIV co-infection among people who inject drugs in Manipur, Northeast India. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143(3):348–56. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5916.182626 PubMed PMID: 27241649.
Mahanta J, Borkakoty B, Das HK, Chelleng PK. The risk of HIV and HCV infections among injection drug users in northeast India. AIDS Care. 2009;21(11):1420–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540120902862584 PubMed PMID: 20024719.
Sharma A, Singh T, Singh L. Understanding of HIV/AIDS in the international border area, Manipur: Northeast India. Epidemiology & Infection. 2019;147:e113.
Christopher Finnigan. Security Challenges along the India- Myanmar Border [Internet]20th March 2019. Available from: https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/southasia/2019/03/20/security-challenges-along-the-india-myanmar-border/.
Evans JL, Hahn JA, Page-Shafer K, Lum PJ, Stein ES, Davidson PJ, et al. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study). J Urban Health. 2003;80(1):137–46.
Mburu G, Chhoun P, Chann N, Tuot S, Mun P, Yi S. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among people who inject drugs in Cambodia: findings from a national survey. Substance Abuse Treatment Prevent Policy. 2019;14(1):1–10.
El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Witte S, Wu E, Chang M. Intimate partner violence and HIV among drug-involved women: contexts linking these two epidemics—challenges and implications for prevention and treatment. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46(2–3):295–306.
El-Bassel N, Shaw SA, Dasgupta A, Strathdee SA. People who inject drugs in intimate relationships: it takes two to combat HIV. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2014;11(1):45–51.
Singh S, Crofts N. HIV infection among injecting drug users in north-east Malaysia, 1992. AIDS Care. 1993;5(3):273–81.
Sharifi H, Mirzazadeh A, Noroozi A, Marshall BD, Farhoudian A, Higgs P, et al. Patterns of HIV risks and related factors among people who inject drugs in Kermanshah, Iran: a latent class analysis. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2017;49(1):69–73.
Wall M, Schmidt E, Sarang A, Atun R, Renton A. Sex, drugs and economic behaviour in Russia: a study of socio-economic characteristics of high risk populations. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2011;22(2):133–9.
Camoni L, Regine V, Salfa MC, Nicoletti G, Canuzzi P, Magliocchetti N, et al. Continued high prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among injecting and noninjecting drug users in Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2010;46:59–65.
Khajehkazemi R, Osooli M, Sajadi L, Karamouzian M, Sedaghat A, Fahimfar N, et al. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs in Iran: the 2010 National Surveillance Survey. Sexually Transmitted Infect. 2013;89(Suppl 3):iii29–32.
Mumtaz GR, Weiss HA, Thomas SL, Riome S, Setayesh H, Riedner G, et al. HIV among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: systematic review and data synthesis. PLoS Med. 2014;11(6):e1001663.
Jolley E, Rhodes T, Platt L, Hope V, Latypov A, Donoghoe M, et al. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy. BMJ Open. 2012;2(5):e001465.
Scheibe A, Young K, Moses L, Basson RL, Versfeld A, Spearman CW, et al. Understanding hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV among people who inject drugs in South Africa: findings from a three-city cross-sectional survey. Harm Reduct J. 2019;16(1):1–11.
Linton SL, Celentano DD, Kirk GD, Mehta SH. The longitudinal association between homelessness, injection drug use, and injection-related risk behavior among persons with a history of injection drug use in Baltimore. MD Drug Alcohol Dependence. 2013;132(3):457–65.
Singh PSJ, Azman A, Samsurijan MS, Badaruddin RFR, Vadevelu K, Yahaya MH, et al. Implementation dilemmas of the Needle Syringe Exchange Programme (NSEP): Between the law and prevention. Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016;2(2):53–7.
Bastos FI, Strathdee SA. Evaluating effectiveness of syringe exchange programmes: current issues and future prospects. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51(12):1771–82.
Bluthenthal RN, Kral AH, Lorvick J, Watters JK. Impact of law enforcement on syringe exchange programs: a look at Oakland and San Francisco. Med Anthropol. 1997;18(1):61–83.
Beletsky L, Heller D, Jenness SM, Neaigus A, Gelpi-Acosta C, Hagan H. Syringe access, syringe sharing, and police encounters among people who inject drugs in New York City: a community-level perspective. Int J Drug Policy. 2014;25(1):105–11.
Pollini RA, Brouwer KC, Lozada RM, Ramos R, Cruz MF, Magis-Rodriguez C, et al. Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico–US border cities. Addiction. 2008;103(1):101–8.
Tandon T. Drug Policy in India: International Drug Policy Consortium; 2015. Available from: https://idhdp.com/media/400258/idpc-briefing-paper_drug-policy-in-india.pdf.
Hughes CE, Stevens A. The effects of the decriminalization of drug use in Portugal. 2007.
Solomon SS, Srikrishnan AK, Mehta SH, Vasudevan CK, Murugavel KG, Thamburaj E, et al. High prevalence of HIV, HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection, and risk behaviors among injection drug users in Chennai, India: a cause for concern. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1999). 2008;49(3):327–32. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181831e85 PubMed PMID: 18845962.
Semá Baltazar C, Boothe M, Kellogg T, Ricardo P, Sathane I, Fazito E, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV/hepatitis B and HIV/hepatitis C co-infections among people who inject drugs in Mozambique. BMC Public Health. 2020;20:1–11.
Bagheri Amiri F, Mostafavi E, Mirzazadeh A. HIV, HBV and HCV coinfection prevalence in Iran-a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(3): e0151946.
Azevedo TCL, Zwahlen M, Rauch A, Egger M, Wandeler G. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016;19(1):20711.
Jindal N, Arora U, Singh K. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in three groups of populations at high risk of HIV infection in Amritsar (Punjab). Northern India Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61(1):79–81 PubMed PMID: 18219142.
Organisation NAC. National Aids Control Programme Phase IV. Available from: http://www.naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/Strategy%20document%20Injecting%20Drug%20Use_0.pdf.
Mastro TD, George B, Osborne K. The evolving HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in India and the need for a heightened response. AIDS. 2015;29(5):629–31.
Madden A, Wodak A. Australia’s response to HIV among people who inject drugs. AIDS Educ Prev. 2014;26(3):234–44.
Iversen J, Wand H, Topp L, Kaldor J, Maher L. Extremely low and sustained HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in a setting of harm reduction. AIDS. 2014;28(2):275–8.
WHO U, UNAIDS. Techinical Guide for Countries to set Targets for Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care for Injecting Drug Users 2009. Available from: https://www.who.int/hiv/pub/idu/targetsetting/en/.
Strike C, Miskovic M. Scoping out the literature on mobile needle and syringe programs—review of service delivery and client characteristics, operation, utilization, referrals, and impact. Harm Reduct J. 2018;15(1):1–15.
Reddon H, Marshall BD, Milloy M. Elimination of HIV transmission through novel and established prevention strategies among people who inject drugs. Lancet HIV. 2019;6(2):e128–36.
Belludi A, McFall AM, Solomon SS, Celentano DD, Mehta SH, Srikrishnan A, et al. Awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men in India: Results from a multi-city cross-sectional survey. PLoS ONE. 2021;16(2): e0247352.
Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasamai P, Sangkum U, Mock PA, Leethochawalit M, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9883):2083–90.