Department of Health Epidemiology Bureau. A briefer on the Philippine HIV estimates 2020. Manila: Department of Health; 2021.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. UNAIDS Data 2020. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2020.
Fisher M, Pao D, Brown AE, Sudarshi D, Gill ON, Cane P, et al. Determinants of HIV-1 transmission in men who have sex with men: a combined clinical, epidemiological and phylogenetic approach. AIDS. 2010;24(11):1739–47.
Department of Health Epidemiology Bureau. 2018 integrated HIV Behavioral and serologic surveillance (IHBSS). Manila: Department of Health; 2020.
United Nations Development Programme. Missing in action - loss of clients from HIV testing, treat- ment, care and support services: case studies of gay men and other men who have sex with men in Manila missing in action. Bangkok: United Nations Development Programme; 2017.
Ross AG, Ditangco RA, Belimac JG, Olveda RM, Mercado ES, Chau TN, et al. The dire sexual health crisis among MSM in the Philippines: an exploding HIV epidemic in the absence of essential health services. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;37:6–8.
Department of Health. Administrative order 2017–0019 policies and guidelines in the conduct of HIV testing Services in Health Facilities. Philippines: DOH; 2017.
World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, testing, treatment, service delivery and monitoring: recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021.
Golub SA, Gamarel KE. The impact of anticipated HIV stigma on delays in HIV testing behaviors: findings from a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in new York City. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(11):621–7.
Rutstein SE, Ananworanich J, Fidler S, Johnson C, Sanders EJ, Sued O, et al. Clinical and public health implications of acute and early HIV detection and treatment: a scoping review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(1):21579.
Hatzold K, Gudukeya S, Mutseta MN, Chilongosi R, Nalubamba M, Nkhoma C, et al. HIV self-testing: breaking the barriers to uptake of testing among men and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, experiences from STAR demonstration projects in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019;22(Suppl 1):e25244.
Piamonte S. Behavioral, Normative, and Control Beliefs of Filipino Men Who Have Sex with Men on Repeat HIV Testing and Counseling. Acta Med Philipp. 2021.
Witzel TC, Eshun-Wilson I, Jamil MS, Tilouche N, Figueroa C, Johnson CC, et al. Comparing the effects of HIV self-testing to standard HIV testing for key populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2020;18(1):381.
Gohil J, Baja ES, Sy TR, Guevara EG, Hemingway C, Medina PMB, et al. Is the Philippines ready for HIV self-testing? BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):34.
Pagtakhan R, Rosadiño J, Briñes M, Baja E. Community-led conversations on awareness and acceptability of HIV self-screening among men who have sex with men and transgender women in metropolitan Manila, Philippines. International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science; 2019; Mexico City: International AIDS Society; 2019.
Simoni JM, Kutner BA, Horvath KJ. Opportunities and challenges of digital technology for HIV treatment and prevention. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2015;12(4):437–40.
LeGrand S, Muessig KE, Horvath KJ, Rosengren AL, Hightow-Weidman LB. Using technology to support HIV self-testing among MSM. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2017;12(5):425–31.
McGuire M, de Waal A, Karellis A, Janssen R, Engel N, Sampath R, et al. HIV self-testing with digital supports as the new paradigm: A systematic review of global evidence (2010-2021). EClinicalMedicine. 2021;39:101059.
DataReportal. Digital 2021 The Philippines 2021 [Available from: https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2021-philippines.
Quilantang MIN, Bermudez ANC, Operario D. Reimagining the future of HIV service implementation in the Philippines based on lessons from COVID-19. AIDS Behav. 2020;24(11):3003–5.
von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. BMJ. 2007;335(7624):806–8.
Department of Health Epidemiology Bureau. HIV/AIDS and ART registry of the Philippines - December 2019. Manila: Department of Health; 2019.
Mulubwa C, Hensen B, Phiri MM, Shanaube K, Schaap AJ, Floyd S, et al. Community based distribution of oral HIV self-testing kits in Zambia: a cluster-randomised trial nested in four HPTN 071 (PopART) intervention communities. Lancet HIV. 2019;6(2):e81–92.
Brown AN, Djimeu EW, Cameron DB. A review of the evidence of harm from self-tests. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(Suppl 4):S445–9.
Lyons CE, Coly K, Bowring AL, Liestman B, Diouf D, Wong VJ, et al. Use and acceptability of HIV self-testing among first-time testers at risk for HIV in Senegal. AIDS Behav. 2019;23(Suppl 2):130–41.
Xiao W, Yan L, Chen L, Fu G, Yang H, Yang C, et al. Sexual network distribution of HIV self-testing kits: findings from the process evaluation of an intervention for men who have sex with men in China. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0232094.
Wang Z, Lau JTF, Ip M, Ho SPY, Mo PKH, Latkin C, et al. A randomized controlled trial evaluating efficacy of promoting a home-based HIV self-testing with online counseling on increasing HIV testing among men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2018;22(1):190–201.
Tang W, Wei C, Cao B, Wu D, Li KT, Lu H, et al. Crowdsourcing to expand HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China: A closed cohort stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2018;15(8):e1002645.
Jamil MS, Prestage G, Fairley CK, Grulich AE, Smith KS, Chen M, et al. Effect of availability of HIV self-testing on HIV testing frequency in gay and bisexual men at high risk of infection (FORTH): a waiting-list randomised controlled trial. Lancet HIV. 2017;4(6):e241–e50.
Zhang C, Li X, Brecht ML, Koniak-Griffin D. Can self-testing increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0188890.
Witzel CTWT, McCabe L, Gabriel M, WOlton A, Gafos M, Ward D, et al. Impact and acceptability of HIV self-testing for trans men and trans women: A mixed-methods subgroup analysis of the SELPHI randomised controlled trial and process evaluation in England and Wales. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;32(100700).
Department of Health. Department Memorandum No. 2020–0276: Interim Guidelines on Community-based HIV Screening. Philippines: DOH; 2020.
Zajac K, Kennedy CE, Fonner VA, Armstrong KS, O'Reilly KR, Sweat MD. A systematic review of the effects of Behavioral counseling on sexual risk behaviors and HIV/STI prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(7):1178–202.
Brody C, Sok S, Tuot S, Pantelic M, Restoy E, Yi S. Do combination HIV prevention programmes result in increased empowerment, inclusion and agency to demand equal rights for marginalised populations in low-income and middle-income countries? A systematic review. BMJ Glob Health. 2019;4(5):e001560.
Department of Health, editor. Philippine Health Sector HIV Strategic Plan. In: Department of Health, editor. Manila: Department of Health; 2020.
Girault P, Misa Wong C, Jittjang S, Fongkaew K, Cassell MM, Lertpiriyasuwat C, et al. Uptake of oral fluid-based HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Thailand. PLoS One. 2021;16(8):e0256094.
Burke VM, Nakyanjo N, Ddaaki W, Payne C, Hutchinson N, Wawer MJ, et al. HIV self-testing values and preferences among sex workers, fishermen, and mainland community members in Rakai, Uganda: A qualitative study. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0183280.
Wulandari LPL, Kaldor J, Guy R. Uptake and acceptability of assisted and unassisted HIV self-testing among men who purchase sex in brothels in Indonesia: a pilot intervention study. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):730.
Phanuphak N, Anand T, Jantarapakde J, Nitpolprasert C, Himmad K, Sungsing T, et al. What would you choose: online or offline or mixed services? Feasibility of online HIV counselling and testing among Thai men who have sex with men and transgender women and factors associated with service uptake. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018;21(Suppl 5):e25118.
Waterfield KC, Shah GH, Etheredge GD, Ikhile O. Consequences of COVID-19 crisis for persons with HIV: the impact of social determinants of health. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):299.
Iversen J, Sabin K, Chang J, Morgan Thomas R, Prestage G, Strathdee SA, et al. COVID-19, HIV and key populations: cross-cutting issues and the need for population-specific responses. J Int AIDS Soc. 2020;23(10):e25632.
Tonen-Wolyec S, Kayembe Tshilumba C, Batina-Agasa S, Marini Djang'eing'a R, Hayette MP, Belec L. Comparison of practicability and effectiveness between unassisted HIV self-testing and directly assisted HIV self-testing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a randomized feasibility trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1):830.
Phanuphak N, Jantarapakde J, Himmad L, Sungsing T, Meksena R, Phomthong S, et al. Linkages to HIV confirmatory testing and antiretroviral therapy after online, supervised, HIV self-testing among Thai men who have sex with men and transgender women. J Int AIDS Soc. 2020;23(1):e25448.
Maatouk I, Nakib ME, Assi M, Farah P, Makso B, Nakib CE, et al. Community-led HIV self-testing for men who have sex with men in Lebanon: lessons learned and impact of COVID-19. Health Res Policy Syst. 2021;19(Suppl 1):50.
Janssen R, Engel N, Esmail A, Oelofse S, Krumeich A, Dheda K, et al. Alone but supported: A qualitative study of an HIV self-testing app in an observational cohort study in South Africa. AIDS Behav. 2020;24(2):467–74.
Okoboi S, Lazarus O, Castelnuovo B, Nanfuka M, Kambugu A, Mujugira A, et al. Peer distribution of HIV self-test kits to men who have sex with men to identify undiagnosed HIV infection in Uganda: A pilot study. PLoS One. 2020;15(1):e0227741.
Lillie T, Boyee D, Kamariza G, Nkunzimana A, Gashobotse D, Persaud N. Increasing testing options for key populations in Burundi through peer-assisted HIV self-testing: descriptive analysis of routine programmatic data. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2021;7(9):e24272.
Okoboi S, Castelnuovo B, Van Geertruyden JP, Lazarus O, Vu L, Kalibala S, et al. Cost-effectiveness of peer-delivered HIV self-tests for MSM in Uganda. Front Public Health. 2021;9:651325.
Sha YX, Y; Wang Y; Ong, J; Ni, Y; Lu, Y; Cheng, M. Comparing the effectiveness of secondary distribution of HIV self-testing to testing card referral in promoting HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China: A quasi-experimental study. medRxiv. 2021.
Li S, Zhang J, Mao X, Lu T, Gao Y, Zhang W, et al. Feasibility of indirect secondary distribution of HIV self-test kits via WeChat among men who have sex with men: National Cross-sectional Study in China. J Med Internet Res. 2021;23(10):e28508.
He L, Pan X, Yang J, Ma Q, Jiang J, Wang W, et al. HIV risk behavior and HIV testing among rural and urban men who have sex with men in Zhejiang Province, China: A respondent-driven sampling study. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231026.
Preston DB, D'Augelli AR, Kassab CD, Cain RE, Schulze FW, Starks MT. The influence of stigma on the sexual risk behavior of rural men who have sex with men. AIDS Educ Prev. 2004;16(4):291–303.
Colby D, Minh TT, Toan TT. Down on the farm: homosexual behaviour, HIV risk and HIV prevalence in rural communities in Khanh Hoa province. Vietnam Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84(6):439–43.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Global AIDS Update 2021 - Confronting Inequalities: Lessons for Pandemic Responses from 40 Years of AIDS. 2021.
Eshun-Wilson I, Jamil MS, Witzel TC, Glidded DV, Johnson C, Le Trouneau N, et al. A systematic review and network Meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing distribution strategies. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;73(4):e1018–e28.
Green KE, Vu BN, Phan HT, Tran MH, Ngo HV, Vo SH, et al. From conventional to disruptive: upturning the HIV testing status quo among men who have sex with men in Vietnam. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018;21(Suppl 5):e25127.
van Dijk M, de Wit JBF, Guadamuz TE, Martinez JE, Jonas KJ. Slow uptake of PrEP: Behavioral predictors and the influence of Price on PrEP uptake among MSM with a high interest in PrEP. AIDS Behav. 2021;25(8):2382–90.
Sharma A, Chavez PR, MacGowan RJ, McNaghten AD, Mustanski B, Gravens L, et al. Willingness to distribute free rapid home HIV test kits and to test with social or sexual network associates among men who have sex with men in the United States. AIDS Care. 2017;29(12):1499–503.
Ratner B. Variable selection methods in regression: ignorable problem, outing notable solution. J Target Meas Anal Mark. 2010;18:65–75.
Hosmer D, Lemeshow S, Sturdivant RX. Applied logistic regression. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
Steyerberg E. Clinical prediction models: a practical approach to development, validation, and updating: Springer Science & Business Media; 2008.
Chowdhury MZI, Turin TC. Variable selection strategies and its importance in clinical prediction modelling. Fam Med Community Health. 2020;8(1):e000262.
Austin PC, Steyerberg EW. Events per variable (EPV) and the relative performance of different strategies for estimating the out-of-sample validity of logistic regression models. Stat Methods Med Res. 2017;26(2):796–808.