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Table 1 Study definitions

From: Infectious disease surveillance for refugees at borders and in destination countries: a scoping review

Asylum-seeker “An individual who is seeking international protection. In countries with individualized procedures, an asylum seeker is someone whose claim has not yet been finally decided on by the country in which he or she has submitted it. Not every asylum seeker will ultimately be recognized as a refugee, but every recognized refugee is initially an asylum seeker” [24]
Destination country “In the migration context, a country that is the destination for a person or a group of persons, irrespective of whether they migrate regularly or irregularly” [24]
Displacement “The movement of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters” [24]
Displacement settlements Used here as an umbrella term to refer to all forms of displaced communal living, including formal displacement camps, informal/irregular settlements, emergency accommodation, reception and detention centres, but not including open/dispersed
Irregular/ undocumented migration “Movement of persons that takes place outside the laws, regulations, or international agreements governing the entry into or exit from the State of origin, transit or destination” [24]
Forced displacement Involuntary or coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region, e.g. “as a result of persecution, conflict, generalized violence or human rights violations” [25]
Migrant “An umbrella term, not defined under international law, reflecting the common lay understanding of a person who moves away from his or her place of usual residence, whether within a country or across an international border, temporarily or permanently, and for a variety of reasons” [24]
Refugee (mandate) “A person who qualifies for the protection of the United Nations provided by UNHCR, in accordance with UNHCR’s Statute and, notably, subsequent General Assembly’s resolutions clarifying the scope of UNHCR’s competency, regardless of whether or not he or she is in a country that is a party to the 1951 Convention or the 1967 Protocol – or a relevant regional refugee instrument – or whether or not he or she has been recognized by his or her host country as a refugee under either of these instruments” [24]
Refugee (1951 Convention) “A person who, owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it” [24, 26]
Surveillance “ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of outcome-specific data for use in planning, implementing and evaluating public health policies and practices” [4]
Syndromic surveillance “Syndromic surveillance can be defined as a form of early detection of possible outbreaks by using symptoms prior to any laboratory diagnosis” [14, 16]
Transit country “In the migration context, the country through which a person or a group of persons pass on any journey to the country of destination or from the country of destination to the country of origin or of habitual residence” [24]
Vulnerability “Within a migration context, vulnerability is the limited capacity to avoid, resist, cope with, or recover from harm. This limited capacity is the result of the unique interaction of individual, household, community, and structural characteristics and conditions” [24]