Itani L, Radwan H, Hashim M, Hasan H, Obaid RS, Ghazal HA, Al Hilali M, Rayess R, Mohamed HJJ, Hamadeh R: Dietary patterns and their associations with gestational weight gain in the United Arab Emirates: results from the MISC cohort. Nutri J 2020, 19:1–12.
Goryakin Y, Suhrcke M: Economic development, urbanization, technological change and overweight: what do we learn from 244 Demographic and Health Surveys? Econ Hum Biol 2014, 14:109–127.
Farrag NS, Cheskin LJ, Farag MK: A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Prevalence and risk factors meta-analysis. Adv Pediatric Res 2017, 4.
Woo Baidal JA, Locks LM, Cheng ER, Blake-Lamb TL, Perkins ME, Taveras EM: Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in the First 1,000 Days: A Systematic Review. Am J Prevent Med 2016, 50(6):761–779.
Bove I, Miranda T, Campoy C, Uauy R, Napol M: Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case. Early Hum Dev 2012, 88(9):747–751.
Musaiger AO, Hassan AS, Obeid O: The paradox of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries: the need for action. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011, 8(9):3637–3671.
Organization WH: The state of the world’s children 2019: children, food and nutrition: growing well in a changing world: Unicef; 2019.
Wu TC, Chen PH: Health consequences of nutrition in childhood and early infancy. Pediatr Neonatol 2009, 50(4):135–142.
Harder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg G, Plagemann A: Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2005, 162(5):397–403.
Hauck FR, Thompson JM, Tanabe KO, Moon RY, Vennemann MM: Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2011, 128(1):103–110.
Oddy WH, Li J, Whitehouse AJ, Zubrick SR, Malacova E: Breastfeeding duration and academic achievement at 10 years. Pediatrics 2011, 127(1):e137-145.
PAHO/WHO: PAHO/WHO Guiding principles for Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child. In.: Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN); 2001: 0.
Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S, Collet JP, Vanilovich I, Mezen I, Ducruet T et al: Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. Jama 2001, 285(4):413–420.
Hop LT, Gross R, Giay T, Sastroamidjojo S, Schultink W, Lang NT: Premature complementary feeding is associated with poorer growth of vietnamese children. J Nutr 2000, 130(11):2683–2690.
Lartey A, Manu A, Brown KH, Peerson JM, Dewey KG: Predictors of growth from 1 to 18 months among breast-fed Ghanaian infants. Eur J Clin Nutri 2000, 54(1):41–49.
Abdulrazzaq YM, Abdulla S, Belhaj G: Meal and Snack Patterns of Infants and Toddlers in the United Arab Emirates: The UAE Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Dubai Med J 2019, 2(1):1–6.
Taha Z, Garemo M, Nanda J: Patterns of breastfeeding practices among infants and young children in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Int Breastfeeding J 2018, 13(1):48.
United Arab Emirates Country Profile [https://data.un.org/en/iso/ae.html]
Dwyer JT: The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016: Moving Forward. J Nutri 2018, 148(suppl_3):1575S-1580S.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency.: The world factbook. In. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency: 1 online resource (volumes).
Deeb A, Suliman S, Tomy M, Yousef H, Rahman LA, Saleh S, Mahmoud S, Akle M, Nagelkerke N: Is There a Correlation between Body Weight and Awareness of Healthy Life Style Components in Children? Open J Pediatrics 2015, 5(01):49.
WHO: STEPS sample size calculator and sampling spreadsheet. World Health Organization web site http://www.who.int/chp/steps/resources/sampling/en/ Accessed May 2014, 28.
Villar J, Ismail LC, Victora CG, Ohuma EO, Bertino E, Altman DG, Lambert A, Papageorghiou AT, Carvalho M, Jaffer YA: International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Lancet 2014, 384(9946):857–868.
WHO: WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: methods and development: World Health Organization; 2006.
WHO: Guideline: assessing and managing children at primary health-care facilities to prevent overweight and obesity in the context of the double burden of malnutrition. 2017.
Nutritionist Pro Software. In., 5.1.0 edn. San Bruno, CA, USA: AXXYA SYSTEMS; 2014: First Data Bank.
Al Dhaheri AS, Al Ma’awali AK, Laleye LC, Washi SA, Jarrar AH, Al Meqbaali FT, Mohamad MN, Masuadi EM: The effect of nutritional composition on the glycemic index and glycemic load values of selected Emirati foods. Bmc Nutrition 2015, 1(1):1–8.
Al Dhaheri AS, Henry CJK, Mohamad MN, Ohuma EO, Ismail LC, Al Meqbaali FT, Jarrar AH: Glycaemic index and glycaemic load values of commonly consumed foods in the United Arab Emirates. Brit J Nutri 2017, 117(8):1110–1117.
Mesana M, Hilbig A, Androutsos O, Cuenca-Garcia M, Dallongeville J, Huybrechts I, De Henauw S, Widhalm K, Kafatos A, Nova E: Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents’ diet: the HELENA study. Eur J Nutri 2018, 57(2):629–641.
Yeung CH, Louie JC: Methodology for the assessment of added/free sugar intake in epidemiological studies. Curr Opin Clin Nutri Metabolic Care 2019, 22(4):271–277.
WHO: Guideline: sugars intake for adults and children: World Health Organization; 2015.
Swan GE, Powell NA, Knowles BL, Bush MT, Levy LB: A definition of free sugars for the UK. Public health nutrition 2018, 21(9):1636–1638.
Kibblewhite R, Nettleton A, McLean R, Haszard J, Fleming E, Kruimer D, Te Morenga L: Estimating free and added sugar intakes in New Zealand. Nutrients 2017, 9(12):1292.
Louie JCY, Moshtaghian H, Boylan S, Flood VM, Rangan A, Barclay A, Brand-Miller J, Gill T: A systematic methodology to estimate added sugar content of foods. Eur J Clin Nutri 2015, 69(2):154–161.
Eldridge AL, Catellier DJ, Hampton JC, Dwyer JT, Bailey RL: Trends in mean nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and young children from 3 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Studies (FITS). J Nutri 2019, 149(7):1230–1237.
WHO: Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices: part 1: definitions: conclusions of a consensus meeting held 6-8 November 2007 in Washington DC, USA: World Health Organization; 2008.
PC-Side. In., 1.0 edn: Iowa State University; 2003: Software for Intake Distribution Estimation.
Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Gahche JJ, Dwyer JT, Cowan AE, Jun S, Eicher-Miller HA, Guenther PM, Bhadra A, Thomas PR: Best practices for dietary supplement assessment and estimation of total usual nutrient intakes in population-level research and monitoring. J Nutri 2019, 149(2):181–197.
Gidding SS, Dennison BA, Birch LL, Daniels SR, Gilman MW, Lichtenstein AH, Rattay KT, Steinberger J, Stettler N, Van Horn L: Dietary recommendations for children and adolescents: a guide for practitioners. Pediatrics 2006, 117(2):544–559.
ESPGHAN: Sugar Intake in Infants, Children and Adolescents. In.; 2018.
Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS: Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. J Fam Med Primary Care 2015, 4(2):187.
Ng SW, Zaghloul S, Ali H, Harrison G, Popkin BM: The prevalence and trends of overweight, obesity and nutrition-related non‐communicable diseases in the Arabian Gulf States. Obesity Reviews 2011, 12(1):1–13.
Arts M, Mehra V, Taylor G, Krasevec J, Hayashi C, Bégin F: Breastfeeding a Mother’s gift, for every child. New York: UNICEF 2018.
WHO: Infant and young child feeding: a tool for assessing national practices, policies and programmes. 2003.
Schwarzenberg SJ, Georgieff MK: Advocacy for improving nutrition in the first 1000 days to support childhood development and adult health. Pediatrics 2018, 141(2).
Musaiger AO: Breastfeeding patterns in the Arabian Gulf countries. World Review Nutrition Dietetics 1995, 78:164–190.
Harfouche JK, Musaiger AO: Breast feeding patterns: A review of studies in the eastern Mediterranean region: WHO Alexandria, Egypt; 1993.
Hameed N, HAl T, AAl S, Narchi H: Maternal factors hindering successful breastfeeding in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. J Women’s Health Care 2014, 4:2167-0420.1000220.
Dashti M, Scott JA, Edwards CA, Al-Sughayer M: Predictors of breastfeeding duration among women in Kuwait: results of a prospective cohort study. Nutrients 2014, 6(2):711–728.
Maternity and paternity leave [https://u.ae/en/information-and-services/jobs/working-in-uae-government-sector/maternity-and-paternity-leave]
AlGhazal H, Rashid S, Ruf E: The Sharjah baby-friendly campaign: a community-based model for breastfeeding promotion, protection, and support. Breastfeeding Med 2015, 10(9):437–441.
Agostoni C, Decsi T, Fewtrell M, Goulet O, Kolacek S, Koletzko B, Michaelsen KF, Moreno L, Puntis J, Rigo J: Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutri 2008, 46(1):99–110.
Wilson AC, Forsyth JS, Greene SA, Irvine L, Hau C, Howie PW: Relation of infant diet to childhood health: seven year follow up of cohort of children in Dundee infant feeding study. Bmj 1998, 316(7124):21–25.
Taha Z, Garemo M, Nanda J: Patterns of breastfeeding practices among infants and young children in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Int breastfeeding J 2018, 13(1):1–10.
Motee A, Jeewon R: Importance of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding among infants. Curr Res Nutri Food Sci J 2014, 2(2):56–72.
Uauy R, Peirano P, Hoffman D, Mena P, Birch D, Birch E: Role of essential fatty acids in the function of the developing nervous system. Lipids 1996, 31(1):S167-S176.
Wang Y, Guglielmo D, Welsh JA: Consumption of sugars, saturated fat, and sodium among US children from infancy through preschool age, NHANES 2009–2014. Am J Clin Nutri 2018, 108(4):868–877.
Kowash MB: Severity of early childhood caries in preschool children attending Al-Ain Dental Centre, United Arab Emirates. Eur Arch Paediatric Dentistry 2015, 16(4):319–324.
Hwalla N, Al Dhaheri AS, Radwan H, Alfawaz HA, Fouda MA, Al-Daghri NM, Zaghloul S, Blumberg JB: The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East and approaches to interventions. Nutrients 2017, 9(3):229.
Ahluwalia N, Herrick KA, Rossen LM, Rhodes D, Kit B, Moshfegh A, Dodd KW: Usual nutrient intakes of US infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: findings from NHANES 2009–2012. Am J Clin Nutri 2016, 104(4):1167–1174.
Friel JK, Hanning RM, Isaak CA, Prowse D, Miller AC: Canadian infants’ nutrient intakes from complementary foods during the first year of life. BMC Pediatrics 2010, 10(1):1–11.
Gibson S, Sidnell A: Nutrient adequacy and imbalance among young children aged 1–3 years in the UK. Nutrition Bulletin 2014, 39(2):172–180.
Ladhani S, Srinivasan L, Buchanan C, Allgrove J: Presentation of vitamin D deficiency. Arch Dis Childhood 2004, 89(8):781–784.
Hatun S, Ozkan B, Orbak Z, Doneray H, Cizmecioglu F, Toprak D, Calikoglu ASh: Vitamin D deficiency in early infancy. The Journal of nutrition 2005, 135(2):279–282.
Binet A, Kooh SW: Persistence of Vitamin D-deficiency rickets in Toronto in the 1990 s. Can J Public Health 1996, 87(4):227-230.
Najada AS, Habashneh MS, Khader M: The frequency of nutritional rickets among hospitalized infants and its relation to respiratory diseases. J Trop Pediatrics 2004, 50(6):364–368.
Wagner CL, Greer FR: Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics 2008, 122(5):1142–1152.
Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM: Iron stores of breastfed infants during the first year of life. Nutrients 2014, 6(5):2023–2034.
Ziegler EE, Nelson SE, Jeter JM: Iron supplementation of breastfed infants. Nutri Reviews 2011, 69(suppl_1):S71-S77.
Burke RM, Leon JS, Suchdev PS: Identification, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency during the first 1000 days. Nutrients 2014, 6(10):4093–4114.
Bailey RL, Catellier DJ, Jun S, Dwyer JT, Jacquier EF, Anater AS, Eldridge AL: Total usual nutrient intakes of US children (under 48 months): findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. J Nutrition 2018, 148(suppl_3):1557S-1566S.
Baker RD, Greer FR: Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0–3 years of age). Pediatrics 2010, 126(5):1040–1050.
Stevens GA, Bennett JE, Hennocq Q, Lu Y, De-Regil LM, Rogers L, Danaei G, Li G, White RA, Flaxman SR: Trends and mortality effects of vitamin A deficiency in children in 138 low-income and middle-income countries between 1991 and 2013: a pooled analysis of population-based surveys. Lancet Global Health 2015, 3(9):e528-e536.
WHO: Guideline: vitamin A supplementation in infants and children 6-59 months of age: World Health Organization; 2011.
Laleye LC, Kerkadi AH, Wasesa AA, Rao MV, Aboubacar A: Assessment of vitamin D and vitamin A intake by female students at the United Arab Emirates University based on self-reported dietary and selected fortified food consumption. Int J Food Sci Nutrition 2011, 62(4):370-376.
Bailey RL, Fulgoni III VL, Keast DR, Lentino CV, Dwyer JT: Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents? J Pediatrics 2012, 161(5):837–842. e833.
Leyvraz M, Chatelan A, da Costa BR, Taffe P, Paradis G, Bovet P, Bochud M, Chiolero A: Sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies. Int J Epidemiol 2018, 47(6):1796–1810.
Saeid N, Elmzibri M, Hamrani A, Latifa Q, Belghiti H, El Berri H, Benjeddou K, Bouziani A, Benkirane H, Taboz Y: Assessment of sodium and potassium intakes in children aged 6 to 18 years by 24 h urinary excretion in city of rabat, Morocco. J Nutri Metabolism 2018, 2018.
Albani V, Butler LT, Traill WB, Kennedy OB: Understanding fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents. The contributions of affect, self-concept and habit strength. Appetite 2018, 120:398–408.
Reidy KC, Deming DM, Briefel RR, Fox MK, Saavedra JM, Eldridge AL: Early development of dietary patterns: Transitions in the contribution of food groups to total energy—Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study, 2008. BMC Nutrition 2017, 3(1):1–14.
Al Juaid DA, Binns CW, Giglia RC: Breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia: a review. Int Breastfeeding J 2014, 9(1):1–9.
Westerterp KR, Goris AH: Validity of the assessment of dietary intake: problems of misreporting. Curr Opin Clin Nutri Metabolic Care 2002, 5(5):489–493.