Loprinzi PD, Cardinal BJ, Loprinzi KL, Lee H. Benefits and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents. Obes Facts. 2012;5(4):597–610. https://doi.org/10.1159/000342684.
Eime RM, Young JA, Harvey JT, Charity MJ, Payne WR. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for adults: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10(1):135. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-135.
WHO. Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.
Owens S, Galloway R, Gutin B. The case for vigorous physical activity in youth. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2017;11(2):96–115. https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827615594585.
European Commission. Special Eurobarometer 472 “sport and physical activity” 2017.
WHO. Physical Activity Factsheets for the 28 European Union Member States of the WHO European Region: World Health Organization. 2018.
Moor I, Kuipers MAG, Lorant V, Pförtner TK, Kinnunen JM, Rathmann K, et al. Inequalities in adolescent self-rated health and smoking in Europe: comparing different indicators of socioeconomic status. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2019;73(10):963–70. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211794.
Kuipers MAG, Monshouwer K, van Laar M, Kunst AE. Tobacco control and socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Europe. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(5):e64–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.04.032.
Lorant V, Soto VE, Alves J, Federico B, Kinnunen J, Kuipers M, et al. Smoking in school-aged adolescents: design of a social network survey in six European countries. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8(1):1–12.
Bosque-Prous M, Kuipers MAG, Espelt A, Richter M, Rimpela A, Perelman J, et al. Adolescent alcohol use and parental and adolescent socioeconomic position in six European cities. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):646. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4635-7.
Utter J, Denny S, Robinson EM, Ameratunga S, Watson P. Perceived access to community facilities, social motivation, and physical activity among New Zealand youth. J Adolesc Health. 2006;39(5):770–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.04.009.
Shi Z, Lien N, Kumar BN, Holmboe-Ottesen G. Physical activity and associated socio-demographic factors among school adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China. Prev Med. 2006;43(3):218–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.04.017.
Borraccino A, Lemma P, Iannotti RJ, Zambon A, Dalmasso P, Lazzeri G, et al. Socioeconomic effects on meeting physical activity guidelines: comparisons among 32 countries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(4):749–56. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181917722.
Haug E, Torsheim T, Samdal O. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: the health behaviour in school-aged children study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5(1):47. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-5-47.
Steinberg L, Morris AS. Adolescent development. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52(1):83–110. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.83.
Perelman J, Alves J, Pfoertner TK, Moor I, Federico B, Kuipers MAG, et al. The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a study in six European cities. Addiction. 2017;112(12):2248–56. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13930.
Álvarez-Bueno C, Pesce C, Cavero-Redondo I, Sánchez-López M, Garrido-Miguel M, Martínez-Vizcaíno V. Academic achievement and physical activity: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2017;140(6).
Braveman PA, Cubbin C, Egerter S, Chideya S, Marchi KS, Metzler M, et al. Socioeconomic status in health research: one size does not fit all. JAMA. 2005;294(22):2879–88. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.294.22.2879.
Langlois J, Omorou AY, Vuillemin A, Briançon S, Lecomte E, Group PT. Association of socioeconomic, school-related and family factors and physical activity and sedentary behaviour among adolescents: multilevel analysis of the PRALIMAP trial inclusion data. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):175. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4070-9.
Stalsberg R, Pedersen AV. Are differences in physical activity across socioeconomic groups associated with choice of physical activity variables to report? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(5).
Hulteen RM, Smith JJ, Morgan PJ, Barnett LM, Hallal PC, Colyvas K, et al. Global participation in sport and leisure-time physical activities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2017;95:14–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.027.
Maher CA, Olds TS. Minutes, MET minutes, and METs: unpacking socio-economic gradients in physical activity in adolescents. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(2):160–5. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.099796.
Eime RM, Harvey JT, Craike MJ, Symons CM, Payne WR. Family support and ease of access link socio-economic status and sports club membership in adolescent girls: a mediation study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10(1):1–12.
Wong SL, Leatherdale ST, Manske SR. Reliability and validity of a school-based physical activity questionnaire. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(9):1593–600. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000227539.58916.35.
Kroeker C, Manske S, Rynard V, Smith E. Validity and reliability of the measures for youth respondents from the core indicators and measures of youth health tobacco control and physical activity & sedentary behaviour modules. Waterloo: Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo; 2012.
Currie C, Molcho M, Boyce W, Holstein B, Torsheim T, Richter M. Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) family affluence scale. Soc Sci Med. 2008;66(6):1429–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.11.024.
Torsheim T, Cavallo F, Levin KA, Schnohr C, Mazur J, Niclasen B, et al. Psychometric validation of the revised family affluence scale: a latent variable approach. Child Indic Res. 2016;9(3):771–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-015-9339-x.
Goodman E, Adler NE, Kawachi I, Frazier AL, Huang B, Colditz GA. Adolescents' perceptions of social status: development and evaluation of a new indicator. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):E31. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.108.2.e31.
Scragg R, Laugesen M, Robinson E. Cigarette smoking, pocket money and socioeconomic status: results from a national survey of 4th form students in 2000. N Z Med J. 2002;115(1158):U108.
Lorant V, Rojas VS, Robert PO, Kinnunen JM, Kuipers MA, Moor I, et al. Social network and inequalities in smoking amongst school-aged adolescents in six European countries. Int J Public Health. 2017;62(1):53–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-016-0830-z.
WHO. Growing up unequal: gender and socioeconomic differences in young people’s health and well-being. In: Jo Inchley DC, Young T, Oddrun Samdal TT, Augustson L, Frida Mathison AA-D, Molcho M, Barnekow MWV, editors. Health Behaviour In School-Aged Children (Hbsc) Study: International Report From The 2013/2014 Survey; 2016.
Federico B, Falese L, Capelli G. Socio-economic inequalities in physical activity practice among Italian children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. J Sports Sci. 2009;17(6):377–84.
Higgerson J, Halliday E, Ortiz-Nunez A, Brown R, Barr B. Impact of free access to leisure facilities and community outreach on inequalities in physical activity: a quasi-experimental study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018;72(3):252–8. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-209882.
Jekauc D, Reimers AK, Wagner MO, Woll A. Physical activity in sport clubs of children and adolescents in Germany: results from a nationwide representative survey. J Public Health. 2013;21(6):505–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-013-0579-2.
Cundiff JM, Matthews KA. Is subjective social status a unique correlate of physical health? A meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 2017;36(12):1109–25. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000534.
Ng DM, Jeffery RW. Relationships between perceived stress and health behaviors in a sample of working adults. Health Psychol. 2003;22(6):638–42. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.528.
Gerber M, Kalak N, Lemola S, Clough PJ, Pühse U, Elliot C, et al. Adolescents' exercise and physical activity are associated with mental toughness. Ment Health Phys Act. 2012;5(1):35–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2012.02.004.
Quon EC, McGrath JJ. Subjective socioeconomic status and adolescent health: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 2014;33(5):433–47. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033716.
Zamani Sani SH, Fathirezaie Z, Brand S, Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E, Gerber M, et al. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:2617–25. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S116811.
Tremblay MS, Inman J, Willms J. The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2000;12(3):312–23. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.12.3.312.
Currie CE, Elton RA, Todd J, Platt S. Indicators of socioeconomic status for adolescents: the WHO health behaviour in school-aged children survey. Health Educ Res. 1997;12(3):385–97. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/12.3.385.
McCormack G, Giles-Corti B, Lange A, Smith T, Martin K, Pikora TJ. An update of recent evidence of the relationship between objective and self-report measures of the physical environment and physical activity behaviours. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7(1 Suppl):81–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80282-2.
Jiménez-Pavón D, Fernández-Vázquez A, Alexy U, Pedrero R, Cuenca-García M, Polito A, et al. Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):667. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-667.