United Nations. Department of economic and social affairs, population division. World urbanization prospects: the 2018 revision (ST/ESA/SER.A/420). New York: United Nations; 2019. https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Report.pdf. Accessed 9 Jan 2020.
Rydin Y, Bleahu A, Davies M, Dávila JD, Friel S, De Grandis G, et al. Shaping cities for health: complexity and the planning of urban environments in the 21st century. Lancet. 2012;379(9831):2079–108.
UN-Habitat. World cities report 2016: Urbanization and development- emerging futures. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat); 2016. https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/download-manager-files/WCR-2016-WEB.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2020.
Hanson K, Berman P. Private health care provision in developing countries: a preliminary analysis of levels and composition. Health Policy Plan. 1998;13(3):195–211.
Harding A, Preker A, editors. Private participation in health services. Washington, DC: The World Bank; 2003.
Adams AM, Ahmed S, Hasan SM, Islam R, Islam MR, Mehjabin N, et al. Mapping the Urban Healthcare Landscape in 5 City Corporations, Bangladesh. Dhaka: icddr,b; 2015.
James P. Grant School of Public Health. Bangladesh health watch report 2014. Urban health scenario: looking beyond 2015. Dhaka: JPGSPH, BRAC University; 2015.
Adams AM, Islam R, Ahmed T. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Health Policy Plan. 2015;30(suppl 1):i32–45.
Ahmed S, Evans T, Standing H, Mahmud S. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh. Lancet. 2013;382(9906):1746–55.
James P. Grant School of Public Health. Bangladesh health watch report 2006. The state of health in Bangladesh 2006: challenges of achieving equity in health. Dhaka: JPGSPH, BRAC University; 2007.
James P. Grant School of Public Health. Bangladesh Health Watch Report 2007. The state of health in Bangladesh 2007: health workforce in Bangladesh, who constitutes the healthcare system? Dhaka: JPGSPH, BRAC University; 2008.
Adams AM, Ahmed R, Shuvo TA, Yusuf SS, Akhter S, Anwar I. Exploratory qualitative study to understand the underlying motivations and strategies of the private for-profit healthcare sector in urban Bangladesh. BMJ Open. 2019;9:e026586. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026586.
Nsigaye R, Wringe A, Roura M, Kalluvya S, Urassa M, Joanna Busza J, et al. From HIV diagnosis to treatment: evaluation of a referral system to promote and monitor access to antiretroviral therapy in rural Tanzania. J Int AIDS Soc. 2009;12:31.
Bloom G, Standing H, Lucas H, Bhuiya A, Oladepo O, Peters DH. Making health markets work better for poor people: the case of informal providers. Health Policy Plan. 2011;26(Suppl 1):i45–52.
O’Donnell CA. Variation in GP referral rates: what can we learn from the literature? Fam Pract. 2000;17(6):462–71.
Saunders D, Kravitz J, Lewin S, McKee M. Zimbabwe’s hospital referral system: does it work? Health Policy Plan. 1998;13(4):359–70.
Management of health facilities: Referral systems. In: Management for health services delivery. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/management/facility/referral/en/. Accessed 9 Jan 2020.
Raj SS, Manthri S, Sahoo PK. Emergency referral transport for maternal complication: lessons from the community based maternal death audits in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2015;4(2):99–106.
Bailey PE, Keyes EB, Parker C, Abdullah M, Kebede H, Feedman L. Using a GIS to model interventions to strengthen the emergency referral system for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;115(3):300–9.
Dogba M, Fournier P, Dumont A, Zunzunegui MV, Tourigny C, Berthe-Cisse S. Mother and newborn survival according to point of entry and type of human resources in a maternal referral system in Kayes (Mali). Reprod Health. 2011;8:13.
Chowdhury AI, Haider R, Abdullah AYM, Christou A, Ali NA, Rahman AE, et al. Using geospatial techniques to develop an emergency referral transport system for suspected sepsis patients in Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0191054. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191054.
Murray SF, Pearson SC. Maternity referral systems in developing countries: current knowledge and future research needs. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62(9):2205–15.
Abrahim O, Linnander E, Mohammed H, Fetene N, Bradley E. A patient-centered understanding of the referral system in Ethiopian primary health care units. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139024.
Gruen R, Anwar R, Begum T, Killingsworth J, Normand C. Dual job holding practitioners in Bangladesh: an exploration. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54(2):267–79.
Ilboudo TP, Chou Y, Huang N. Assessment of provider’s referral decisions in rural Burkina Faso: a retrospective analysis of medical records. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12(1):54.
Bossyns P, Abache R, Abdoulaye M, Miyé H, Depoorter A, Van Lerberghe W. Monitoring the referral system through benchmarking in rural Niger: an evaluation of the functional relation between health centres and the district hospital. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6(1):51–8.
Newbrander W, Ickx P, Werner R, Mujadidi F. Compliance with referral of sick children: a survey in five districts of Afghanistan. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12(1):46.
Biswas A, Anderson R, Doraiswamy S, Abdullah ASM, Purno N, Rahman F, et al. Timely referral saves the lives of mothers and newborns: Midwifery led continuum of care in marginalized teagarden communities - A qualitative case study in Bangladesh. F1000Res. 2018;7:365. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.
Toyabe S, Kouhei A. Referral from secondary care and to aftercare in a tertiary care university hospital in Japan. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:11.
Noor AM, Amin AA, Gething PW, Atkinson PM, Hay SI, Snow RW. Modelling distances travelled to government health services in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11(2):188–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2005.01555.x.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). Health, Nutrition and Population Strategic Investment Plan (HNPSIP) 2016-2021. “Better health for a prosperous society.”. Dhaka: Planning Wing, MPHFW, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh; 2016.
Adams AM, Ahmed T, Islam R, Rizvi SJR, Zakaria R. Mapping health facilities in Sylhet city corporation, Bangladesh. Bonn and Dhaka: GIZ health sector addressing Bangladesh’s demographic challenges & Center for Equity and Health Systems, icddr,b; 2014.
National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, and ICF International. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Dhaka and Rockville: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates & ICF International; 2016. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR311/FR311.pdf.
Fortuny G, Geier R, Marshall R. Poor Settlements in Bangladesh, an assessment of 29 UPPR towns and cities. Dhaka: Urban Partnerships for Poverty Reduction (UPPR). Local Government Engineering Department (LGED). Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh; 2011.
Ouma PO, Maina J, Thuranira PN, Macharia PM, Alegana VA, English M, Okiro EA, Snow RW. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6(3):e342–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30488-6.
Panciera R, Khan A, Rizvi SJ, Ahmed S, Ahmed T, Islam R, Adams AM. The influence of travel time on emergency obstetric care seeking behavior in the urban poor of Bangladesh: a GIS study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16(1):240. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-1032-7.
Panciera R, Ahmed S, Zakaria R, Hossain A. Gaps in emergency health care availability for the urban poor: a GIS study in Dhaka megacity, Bangladesh. In: global forum on research and innovation for health 2015. Forum 2015 abstracts, no: 102. BMJ Open. 2015;5(Suppl 1):A1–A53. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-forum2015abstracts.102.
Banik BK, Chowdhury AI, Sarkar S. Study of traffic congestion in Sylhet City. In Journal of the Indian Roads Congress. 2009; 70(1).
Killingsworth JR, Hossain N, Hedrick-Wong Y, Thomas SD, Rahman A, Begum T. Unofficial fees in Bangladesh: price, equity and institutional issues. Health Policy Plan. 1999;14(2):152–63.
Mannan MA. Access to public health facilities in Bangladesh: a study on facility utilisation and burden of treatment. Bangladesh Dev Stud. 2013;36(4):25–80 www.jstor.org/stable/44730025.
Hongoro C, Musonza TG, Macq J, Anoize A. A qualitative assessment of the referral system at district level in Zimbabwe: implications on efficiency and effective delivery of health services. Cent Afr J Med. 1998;44(4):93–7.
Mackintosh M, Channon A, Karan A, Selvaraj S, Zhao H, Cavagnero E. What is the private sector? Understanding private sector provision in the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2016;388(10044):596–605.
Management Information System, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. Local Health Bulletin 2016 for Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Sadar, Sylhet. Dhaka: MIS, DGHS, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh; 2016.
Kahabuka C, Kvåle G, Moland KM, Hinderaker SG. Why caretakers bypass primary health care facilities for child care - a case from rural Tanzania. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:315.
Tanser F, Gijsbertsen B, Herbst K. Modelling and understanding primary health care accessibility and utilization in rural South Africa: an exploration using a geographical information system. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:691–705.
James P, Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University. Bangladesh Health Watch Report 2009. How healthy is health sector governance? Dhaka: JPGSPH, BRAC University; 2010.
Ahmed S, Adams AM, Islam R, Hasan SM, Panciera R. Impact of traffic variability on geographic accessibility to 24/7 emergency healthcare for the urban poor: a GIS study in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PloS one. 2019;14(9):e0222488. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222488 eCollection 2019.
Roy T, Marcil L, Chowdhury RH, Afsana K, Perry H. The BRAC Manoshi approach to initiating a maternal, neonatal and child health project in urban slums with social mapping, census taking and community engagement. Dhaka and Baltimore: Health, Population and Nutrition Program, BRAC, John’s Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health; 2014.
Kim D, Sarker M, Vyas P. Role of spatial tools in public health policymaking of Bangladesh: opportunities and challenges. J Health Popul Nutr. 2016;35:8.
Zakaria R. Inefficiencies of healthcare referral patterns in Bangladesh urban areas: a GIS study. Dhaka: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Urban Health (ICUH) conference; 2015. May 24–27.
Akande TM. Referral system in Nigeria: study of a tertiary health facility. Ann Afr Med. 2004;3(3):130–3.