Govender D, Naidoo S, Taylor M. Scoping review of risk factors of and interventions for adolescent repeat pregnancies: a public health perspective. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2018;10(1):a1685. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v10i1.1685.
Ramraj T, Jackson D, Dinh T, Olorunju S, Lombard C, Sherman G, et al. Adolescent access to care and risk of early mother-to-child HIV transmission. J Adolesc Health. 2018;62:434–43.
UNAIDS. Women and HIV: a spotlight on adolescent girls and young women. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS; 2019.
Johnson LF, Dorrington RE, Moolla H. HIV epidemic drivers in South Africa: a model-based evaluation of factors accounting for inter-provincial differences in HIV prevalence and incidence trends. South African J HIV Med. 2017;18(1):a695. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhivmed.v18i1.695.
Christofides NJ, Jewkes RK, Dunkle KL, Nduna M, Shai NJ, Sterk C. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the eastern cape, South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18585 http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/18585.
Nkani N, Bhana D. Sexual and reproductive well-being of teenage mothers in a South African township school. South African J Educ. 2016;36(2). Available from:). https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v36n2a118.
Kumza EK, Peters RM. Adolescent vulnerability, sexual health, and the NP’s role in health advocacy. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2016;26:353–61.
Steinberg L. A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Dev Rev. 2008;28(1):78–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.002.
Jaworska N, MacQueen G. Adolescence as a unique developmental period. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2015;40(5):291–3. https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.150268.
Plourde K, Fischer S, Cunningham J, Brady K, Brady K, McCarraher DR. Improving the paradigm of approaches to adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive Health. 2016;13(72). Available from:). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-016-0191-3.
Kosinska M, Chichowska A, Tilioune A. An opportune time to improve sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the European region through intersectoral collaboration. EntreNous: The European Magazine for Sexual and Reproductive Health; 2016. p. 12–5.
Dillon ME. Adolescent pregnancy in mental health. In: Dillon ME, Cherry AL, editors. International handbook of adolescent pregnancy: medical, psychosocial and public health responses. New York: Springer; 2014. p. 79–102.
Ngum Chi Watts M, Liamputtong P, Mcmichael C. Early motherhood: a qualitative study exploring the experiences of African Australian teenage mothers in greater Melbourne, Australia. BMC Public Health. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2215-2.
Kheswa J, Pitso TJ. Psychological well-being and sexual behaviour of south African teenage mothers. Mediterr J Soc Sci. 2014;5(10):563–8.
Koniak-Griffin D, Lesser JGU, Nyamathi A. Teen pregnancy, motherhood, and unprotected sexual activity. Res Nurs Health. 2003;26:4–19.
Lesser J, Oakes R, Koniak-Griffin D. Vulnerable adolescent mothers’ perceptions of maternal role and HIV risk. Health Care for Women Int. 2003;24(6):513–28.
Ngum Chi Watts MC, Liamputtong P, Carolan M. Contraception knowledge and attitudes: truths and myths among African Australian teenage mothers in greater Melbourne. Australia. J Clin Nurs. 2013;23:2131–41.
Govender D, Naidoo S, Taylor M. Prevalence and risk factors of repeat pregnancy among south African adolescent females. Afr J Reprod Health. 2019;23(1):73–87. Available from:. https://doi.org/10.29063/ajrh2019/v23i1.8.
Martyn KK, Martin R. Adolescent sexual risk assessment. J Midwifery Women’s Health. 2003;48(3):213–9.
Widman L, Choukas-Bradley S, Helms SW, Prinstein MJ. Adolescent susceptibility to peer influence. J Adolesc Health. 2016;58:323–9.
Rowland S. Social predictors of repeat adolescent pregnancy and focused strategies. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;24(5):605–16.
Phaswana-Mafuya N, Tabane C, Davids A. Community member perceptions of influences on teenage pregnancies. J Psychol Afr. 2016;26(5):419–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2016.1185916.
Jackson C, Sweeting H, Haw S. Clustering of substance use and sexual risk behaviour in adolescence: analysis of two cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2012;2:e000661. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2011-00066.
Negriff S, Schneiderman JU, Trickett PK. Child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviour: maltreatment types and gender differences. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2015;36(9):708–16. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000204.
Statistics South Africa. South Africa demographic health survey 2016. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2017. Available from: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/PR84.pdf.
Jewkes R, Vundule C, Moforah F, Jordaan E. Relationship dynamics and teenage pregnancy in South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2001;52(5):733–44.
Jewkes RK, Dunkle K, Ndua M, Shai N. Intimate partner violence, relationship and incidence of HIV infection in young women in South Africa: a cohort study. Lancet. 2010;376:41–8.
Madiba S, Ngwenya N. Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Glob Health Action. 2017;10(2):1341597. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2017.1341597.
Wamoyi J, Fenwick A, Urassa M, Zaba B, Stones W. “Women’s bodies are shops”: beliefs about transactional sex and implications for understanding gender power and HIV prevention in Tanzania. Arch Sex Behav. 2011;40:5–15.
De Oliveira T, Kharsany ABM, Graf T, Cawood C, Khanyile D, Grobler A, et al. Transmission networks and risk of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a community-wide phylogenetic study. Lancet HIV. 2017;4(1):e41–50.
Mampane JN. Exploring the ‘blesser and blessee’ phenomenon: young women, transactional sex, and HIV in rural South Africa. SAGE Open. 2018;8(4):1–9.
Singh S, Naicker P. Control as support: improving the outcomes for teenage mothers. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 162–73.
Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D. Understanding young families in South Africa. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 3–16.
Hodes R. Popular perspectives on teenage pregnancy in South Africa. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 17–29.
Botha N. Mina’s story: Sick with childin an Afrikaan-speaking community. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 65–77.
Versfeld A. Aliyah’s story: Generational change in Manenberg. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 78–91.
Blake R. Moral mothers and disobedient daughters: a politics of care and moral personhood across generations. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 184–98.
Blackie D. Disrupted families: the social production of child abandonment in urban Johannesburg. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 201–13.
Nkani N. Regulating and mediating fathers’ involvement in families: The negotiation of inhlawulo. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 97–106.
Mvune N. Ubaba ukhona kodwa angikabi namandla’: Navigating teenage fatherhood in rural KwaZulu-Nata. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 131–45.
Ngabaza S, Shefer T. Gendered narratives on family and care practices. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 147–62.
Bhana D. Anisa’s story: becoming a teenage mother in an Indian community. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 131–45.
Cala VC, Soriano E. Health education from an ecological perspective: adaptation of the Bronfenbrenner model from an experience with adolescents. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci. 2014;8(1):47–57.
Mkwananzi S. Teenage mothers and fathers: A demographic perspective. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 131–45.
Ugu Municipality. Ugu District Municipality integrated development plan 2017/2018−2021/2022. Ugu District Municipality 2013.
Ramjee G, Sartoruis B, Morris N, Handan W, Reddy R, Yssel JD, Tanser F. A decade of sustained geographic spread of HIV infections among women in Durban, South Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4080-6.
Govender D, Naidoo S, Taylor M. Nurses’ perception of the multidisciplinary team approach of care for adolescent mothers and their children in Ugu, KwaZulu-Natal. African J Primary Health Care Family Med. 2019;11(1):a1936. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v11i1.1936.
Onwuegbuzie AJ, Dickinson WB, Leech NL, Zoran AG. Qualitative framework for collecting and analysing data in focus group research. Int J Qual Methods. 2009;8(3):1–21.
Braun V, Clark V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2):77–101.
Hockey J. Research methods, researching peers and familiar settings. Res Pap Educ. 2006;8(2):199–225.
Shenton AK. Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Educ Inf. 2004;22:63–7.
Selikow TA, Ahmed N, Flisher AJ, Mathews C, Mukoma W. “I am not ‘umqwayito’”: a qualitative study of peer pressure and sexual risk behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. Scandinavian J Public Health. 2009;37(2):107–12.
Goncalves H, Souza AD, Tavares PA, Cruz SH, Behague S. Contraceptive medicalisation, fear of infertility and teenage pregnancy in Brazil. Culture, Health Sexuality. 2011;13:201–15.
Mash R, Mash B, De Villiers P. “Why don't you just use a condom?”: understanding the motivational tensions in the minds of South African women. PHCFM. 2010. Available from:. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v2i.79.
Kanda L, Mash R. Reasons for inconsistent condom use by young adults in Mahalapye, Botswana. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2018;10(1):a1492. https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v10i1.1492.
Chili S, Maharaj P. “I was not planning to have a child at such a young age”:experiences of young fathers in Durban, South Africa. In: Mkhwanazi N, Bhana D, editors. Young families: gender, sexuality and care. Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2017. p. 119–31.
Patton R, Keaney F, Brady M. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour. BMC Res Notes. 2008;1:27. Published 2008 Jun 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-1-27.
Kar SK, Choudhury A, Singh AP. Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: a bumpy ride. J Human Reprod Sci. 2015;8(2):70–4. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.158594.
Gyesaw NYK, Ankomah A. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study. Int J Women's Health. 2013;5:773–80.
Nagaddya R, Kiconco S, Komuhangi A, Akugizizibwe P, Auhairwe C. Assessing the influence of social networking material on adolescents’ sexual behaviour in Kampala. J Educ Pract. 2017;8(15):187–93.
Oladeji D, Ayangunna JA. Media influence as predictors of adolescents’ sexual risky behaviour in Nigeria. MedCrave Online Journal of Women’s Health. 2017;5(1):192–6. https://doi.org/10.15406/mojwh.2017.05.00112.
L'Engle KL, Brown JD, Kenneary K. The mass media are an important context for adolescents’ sexual behaviour. J Adolesc Health. 2006;38:186–92.
Landry M, Turner M, Vyas ASW. Social media and sexual behaviour among adolescents: is there a link? JMIR Public Health Survey. 2017;3(2):e28.
Rigsby DC, Macones GA, Driscoll DA. Risk factors for rapid repeat pregnancy among adolescent mothers: a review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 1998;11:115–26.
Frank S, Esterhuizen T, Jinnabhai CC, Sullivan K, Taylor M. Risky behaviour of high school students in an era of HIV and AIDS. S Afr Med J. 2008;98(5):394–8.
Ranganathan M, Heise L, Pettifor A, Silverwood RJ, Selin A, MacPhail C, et al. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016;19(1):20749.
Ranganathan M, MacPhail C, Pettifor A, Kahn KNK, Twine R, Watts C, et al. Young women's perceptions of transactional sex and sexual agency: a qualitative study in the context of rural South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):666. Available from:. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4636-6.
Kilburn K, Ranganathan M, Stoner MCD, Hughes JP, MacPhail C, Agyei Y, et al. Transactional sex and incidences of HIV infection in a cohort of young women from rural South Africa. AIDS. 2018;32(12):1669–77. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001866.
Kyilleh JM, Tabong PT, Konlaan BB. Adolescents’ reproductive health knowledge, choices and factors affecting reproductive health choices: a qualitative study in the West Gonja District in the Northern region, Ghana. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2018;18(1):6. Published 2018 Jan 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-018-0147-5.
Hafen CA, Spilker A, Chango J, Marston ES, Allen J. To accept or reject? The impact of adolescent rejection sensitivity on early adult romantic relationships. J Res Adolesc. 2015;24(1):55–64.
Nelson LE, Morrison-Breedy D. Sex partner type and condom use in African American adolescent mothers: a literature review. J Child Adolescent Psychiat Nurs. 2008;21(4):213–9.
Guiso L, Sapienza P, Zingales L. Does culture affect economic outcomes? J Econ Perspect. 2006;20(2):23–48.
Chisale SS. Decolonising HIV prevention: a critical examination of ‘Ukusoma’ and virginity testing. Alternation. 2016;23(2):217–35.
Posel D, Rudwick S. Marriage and bride wealth (Ilobolo). Afr Stud Rev. 2014;57:51–72.
Khomari DM, Tebele C, Nel K. The social value of lobola: perceptions of south African college students. J Psychol Afr. 2012;22(1):143–5.
Hodes RJ. Too many rights? Reproductive freedom in post-apartheid South Africa. CSSR Working Paper No. 374. Forthcoming. Cape Town, South Africa: Centre for Social Science Research; 2016.
Ngubane N, Maharaj P. Childbearing in the context of the child support grant in a rural area in South Africa Sage Open 1–8; 2015. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018817586.
Jordan N, Patel L, Hochfeld. Early motherhood in Soweto: the next between the child support grant and developmental social work services. Soc Work. 2014;50:394–409.
Jewkes RK, Dunkle K, Ndua M, Shai N. Intimate partner violence, relationship and incidences of HIV infection in young women in South Africa: a cohort study. Lancet. 2010;376:41–8.
Sumter SR, Valkenburg PM, Peter J. Perceptions of love across the lifespan: differences in passion, intimacy, and commitment. Int J Behav Dev. 2013;37(5):417–27.
Janardhana N, Manjula B. Adolescents’ romantic relationship: dynamics of parent-child relationship from India. In: Mohammadnezhad H, editor. Maternal and child health matters around the world. London: Intech Open Limited; 2018. p. P1–21. Available from. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.80754.
Chilinda I, Hourahane G, Pindani M, Chitsulo C, Maluwa A. Attitude of healthcare providers towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in developing countries: systematic review. Health. 2014;6:1706–13.
Mkhwanazi N. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid south African township. Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2010;12(4):347–58.
Tilahun M, Mengisti B, Egata G, Reda AA. Health workers’ attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Reproductive Health. 2012;9:19.
Tangmunkongvorakul A, Banwell C, Carmichael G, Utomo ID, Seubsman S, Kelly M, Sleigh A. Use and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health services among young northern Thai people. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43(2):479–500.
Yakubu I, Salisu WJ. Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reprod Health. 2018;15(1):15.
Svanemyr J, Amin A, Robles OJ, Greene ME. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56:S7–S14.