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Table 5 Multiple linear regression analysis showing the association between coffee drinking and T-scores among premenopausal and postmenopausal women

From: Does coffee drinking have beneficial effects on bone health of Taiwanese adults? A longitudinal study

Variables Premenopausal women Postmenopausal women
β P-value β P-value
Coffee drinking (Ref: No)
 Medium 0.233 0.0355* 0.037 0.7061
 High 0.234 0.0152* −0.088 0.4108
P-trend 0.0108* 0.5399
Age group (Ref: 30–49 years)
 50–69 −0.218 0.0881 −0.565 <.0001*
  ≥ 70 −0.983 <.0001*
Educational (Ref: College and above)
 Senior high school −0.249 0.0123* −0.010 0.9563
 Junior high school −0.255 0.0510 −0.195 0.2658
 Elementary and below −0.388 0.0255* −0.123 0.4573
BMI (Ref: Normal)
 Underweight −0.134 0.5282 −0.430 0.1036
 Overweight 0.209 0.1216 0.033 0.7723
 Obese 0.218 0.2334 0.052 0.7139
Smoking (Ref: Never)
 Quit 0.668 0.0808 −0.801 0.4042
 Yes 0.465 0.0605 −0.148 0.6212
Drinking (Ref: Never)
 Quit 0.096 0.8942
 Yes −0.025 0.9083 −0.048 0.8694
Exercise (Ref: No)
 Yes −0.028 0.7542 0.090 0.2737
Vegetarian diet (Ref: No)
 Yes 0.024 0.7706 0.019 0.6070
Personal disease history
 Diabetes −0.306 0.3908 − 0.244 0.1732
 Hypertension 0.327 0.1440 −0.052 0.6207
 Heart disease 0.241 0.3829 −0.187 0.3447
 Hyperlipidemia −0.295 0.2992 0.206 0.1420
 Stroke 0.200 0.8335 2.624 0.0055*
Supplements
 Vitamin D (Ref: No)
  Yes −0.242 0.3356 0.045 0.8370
 Other vitamins (Ref: No)
  Yes −0.116 0.5060 0.046 0.7087
 Calcium (Ref: No)
  Yes 0.039 0.7670 −0.088 0.3244
  1. *P < 0.05. Adjusted for age, education, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, vegetarian diet, vitamin D, other vitamins, calcium, blood type, fasting blood glucose, creatinine, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, GOT, GPT, SBP, DBP, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, body fat, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, hyperlipidemia and stroke