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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Contrasting patterns of overweight and thinness among preschool children of different ethnic groups in Norway, and relations with maternal and early life factors

Variables Ethnic origin n (%)
Total Europe Middle East/North Africa South Asia
n = 570 n = 298 (52.3) n = 118 (20.7) n = 154 (27.0)
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Mothers
 Maternal age, mean (SD) 29.9 (4.8) 30.7 (4.5) 29.3 (5.5) 27.8 (4.5)
 Prepregnant BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 24.5 (4.8) 24.6 (4.7) 26.1 (5.7) 23.7 (4.3)
 Prepregnant weight status
  Thinness, BMI < 18.5 30 (5.4) 12 (4.1) 6 (5.1) 12 (7.9)
  Normal weight, BMI 18.5–25 313 (55.9) 170 (58.2) 52 (44.4) 91 (60.3)
  Overweight, BMI > 25 217 (38.8) 110 (37.7) 59 (50.5) 48 (31.8)
  missing 10 6 1 3
 Nulliparous 267 (46.8) 161 (54.0) 41 (34.7) 65 (42.2)
 Education
  Primary education or less 95 (16.8) 15 (5.1) 52 (44.1) 28 (18.5)
  Completed high school/upper secondary 214 (37.8) 90 (30.5) 47 (39.8) 77 (50.3)
  Completed university/college education 257 (45.4) 190 (64.4) 19 (16.1) 48 (31.4)
  missing 4 3 0 1
 Prepregnant regular physical activitya, n = 570 174 (30.6) 132 (44.3) 18 (15.3) 24 (15.6)
 Gestational diabetes mellitusb, n = 556 180 (32.4) 72 (24.7) 41 (36.3) 67 (44.1)
 Non-healthy dietc, n = 551 86 (15.6) 15 (5.2) 27 (25.0) 44 (28.9)
 Smoking 3 months before pregnancy, n = 478 104 (21.8) 90 (32.1) 11 (12.5) 3 (2.7)
Children
 Sex, boy (%) 284 (49.8) 157 (52.7) 52 (44.1) 75 (48.7)
 Birth weight (mean), g (SD) 3431.1 (548.6) 3577.9 (527.1) 3413.4 (509.5) 3226.1 (526.8)
Subsample with data 3 months postpartum
 Breast feeding 14 weeks postpartum, n = 472 404 (85.6) 214 (84.9) 80 (88.9) 110 (84.6)
  1. a Self-reported, based on validated questionnaire
  2. b Defined by WHO 2013 criteria; fasting glucose ≥5.1 mmol/l and/or 2-h plasma glucose ≥8.5 mmol/l
  3. c Collected by food frequency questionnaire in week 28 of pregnancy, and defined by cluster analysis on 55 variables of intake