Janssen I, LeBlanc A. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7:40.
Okely AD, Salmon J, Vella S, Cliff D, Timperio A, Tremblay M, et al. A systematic review to update the Australian physical activity recommendations for children and youth. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing; 2012.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Health Survey: Physical Activity, 2011–12; Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/462FBA87B642FCA4CA257BAC0015F3CE?opendocument. Accessed 20 Aug 2016.
Department of Health. Does your child get 60 min of physical activity every day? Make your move - Sit less! Be active for life! Australia’s Physical Activity & Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children (5–12 years). Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Health; 2014.
Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Masse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(1):181–8.
Gray CE, Barnes JD, Cowie Bonne J, Cameron C, Chaput J-P, Faulkner G, et al. Results from Canada’s 2014 report card on physical activity for children and youth. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11 Suppl 1:S26–32.
Standage M, Wilkie HJ, Jago R, Foster C, Goad MA, Cumming SP. Results from England’s 2014 report card on physical activity for children and youth. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11 Suppl 1:S45–50.
Nader PR, Bradley RH, Houts RM, McRitchie SL, O'Brien M. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA. 2008;300(3):295–305.
Juneau CE, Benmarhnia T, Poulin AA, Côté S, Potvin L. Socioeconomic position during childhood and physical activity during adulthood: a systematic review. Int J Public Health. 2015;60(7):799–813.
Drummond MJN, Drummond CE, Dollman J, Abery L. Physical activity from early childhood to adolescence: a literature review of issues and interventions in disadvantaged populations. J Student Wellbeing. 2010;4(2):17–31.
Henning Brodersen N, Steptoe A, Boniface DR, Wardle J. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:140–4.
Kriemler S, Meyer U, Martin E, van Sluijs EMF, Andersen LB, Martin BW. Effect of school-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents: a review of reviews and systematic update. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(11):923–30.
Dobbins M, Husson H, DeCorby K, LaRocca DL. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;2:CD007651.
Ball K. Traversing myths and mountains: Addressing socioeconomic inequities in the promotion of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:142.
Dewar DL, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Okely AD, Collins CE, Batterham M, et al. The nutrition and enjoyable activity for teen girls study: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2013;45(3):313–7.
Smith JJ, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Dally KA, Salmon J, Okely AD, et al. Smart-phone obesity prevention trial for adolescent boys in low-income communities: the ATLAS RCT. Pediatrics. 2014;134(3):e723–e31.
Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Aguiar EJ, Callister R. Randomized controlled trial of the Physical Activity Leaders (PALs) program for adolescent boys from disadvantaged secondary schools. Prev Med. 2011;52(3–4):239–46.
Casey MM, Harvey JT, Telford A, Eime RM, Mooney A, Payne WR. Effectiveness of a school-community linked program on physical activity levels and health-related quality of life for adolescent girls. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:649.
Sutherland R, Campbell E, Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Okely AD, Nathan N, et al. ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(8):488–95.
Dubuy V, De Cocker K, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Maes L, Seghers J, Lefevre J, et al. Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:457.
Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Callister R, Collins CE. Effects of integrating pedometers, parental materials, and e-mail support within an extracurricular school sport intervention. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(2):176–83.
Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Tharp T, Rex J. Factors associated with changes in physical activity: a cohort study of inactive girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(8):733–8.
Lyons EJ, Lewis ZH, Mayrsohn BG, Rowland JL. Behavior change techniques implemented in electronic lifestyle activity monitors: a systematic content analysis. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(8):e192.
Lewis ZH, Lyons EJ, Jarvis JM, Baillargeon J. Using an electronic activity monitor system as an intervention modality: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:585.
Pureprofile. Wearables work – Australians more active with fitness trackers. Sydney: Pureprofile; 2015. http://businesses.pureprofile.com/news/wearables-work-australians-more-active-with-fitness-trackers. http://www.webcitation.org/6m6AFkxZf. Accessed 7 July 2016.
Ledger D, McCaffrey D. Inside wearables: How the science of human behavior change offers the secret to long-term engagement. Washington, DC: Endeavour Partners LLC; 2014.
Xenos M, Foot K. Not your father’s internet: the generation gap in online politics. In: Bennett WL, editor. Civic life online: learning how digital media can engage youth. Cambridge: The MIT Pres; 2008. p. 51–70.
Ridgers ND, McNarry MA, Mackintosh KA. Feasibility and effectiveness of using wearable activity trackers in youth: a systematic review. JMIR mHealth uHealth. 2016;4(4):e129.
Finkelstein EA, Haaland BA, Bilger M, Sahasranaman A, Sloan RA, Nang EE, et al. Effectiveness of activity trackers with and without incentives to increase physical activity (TRIPPA): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30284-4.
Jakicic JM, Davis KK, Rogers RJ, King WC, Marcus MD, Helsel D, et al. Effect of wearable technology combined with a lifestyle intervention on long-term weight loss: the IDEA randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;316(11):1161–71.
Fritz T, Huang EM, Murphy GC, Zimmerman T. Persuasive technology in the real world: A study of long-term use of activity sensing devices for fitness. CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems; 2014; Toronto, Canada.
Cadmus-Bertram LA, Marcus BH, Patterson RE, Parker BA, Morey BL. Randomized trial of a Fitbit-based physical activity intervention for women. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(3):414–8.
Lau PWC, Lau EY, Wong DP, Ransdell L. A systematic review of information and communication technology–based interventions for promoting physical activity behavior change in children and adolescents. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(3):e48.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Household use of information technology, Australia, 2012–13. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics; 2013. Report No.: 8146.0.
Lenhart A. Teens, Social Media and Technology Overview. PewResearchCenter; 2015. Available from: http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/. Accessed 20 Aug 2016.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2011; Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/2033.0.55.001. Accessed 20 Aug 2016.
Ridgers ND, Timperio A, Crawford D, Salmon J. Five-year changes in school recess and lunchtime and the contribution to children's daily physical activity. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(10):741–6.
Murray DM, Stevens J, Hannan PJ, Catellier DJ, Schmitz KH, Dowda M, et al. School-level intraclass correlation for physical activity in sixth grade girls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(5):926–36.
Ball K, Cleland V, Dollman J, Turrell G. Action area 7: Disadvantaged populations. In National Heart Foundation of Australia, editor. Blueprint for an Active Australia (2nd Ed). Melbourne; 2014. p. 50–4.
Michie S, Richardson M, Johnston M, Abraham C, Francis J, Hardeman W, et al. The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2013;46(1):81–95.
Pearson N, Braithwaite R, Biddle SJ. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among adolescent girls: a meta-analysis. Acad Pediatr. 2015;15(1):9–18.
Salmon J, Booth ML, Phongsavan P, Murphy N, Timperio A. Promoting physical activity participation among children and adolescents. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:144–59.
Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall; 1986.
Epstein LH. Integrating theoretical approaches to promote physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 1998;15(4):257–65.
Ledger D. Inside wearables - part 2: a look at the uncertain future of smart wearable devices, and five industry developments that will be necessary for meaningful mass market adoption and sustained engagement. Washington, DC: Endeavour Partners LLC; 2014.
Lee JM, Kim Y, Welk GJ. Validity of consumer-based physical activity monitors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(9):1840–8.
Ridgers ND, Fairclough S. Assessing free-living physical activity using accelerometry: practical issues for researchers and practitioners. Eur J Sport Sci. 2011;11(3):205–13.
Trost SG, Ward DS, Moorhead SM, Watson PD, Riner W, Burke JR. Validity of the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) activity monitor in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:629–33.
Freedson P, Pober D, Janz KF. Calibration of accelerometer output for children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;11(Suppl):S523–S30.
Ridgers ND, Salmon J, Ridley K, O'Connell E, Arundell L, Timperio A. Agreement between activPAL and ActiGraph for assessing children's sedentary time. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:15.
Prochaska JJ, Sallis JF, Long B. A physical activity screening measure for use with adolescents in primary care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:554–9.
Ridgers ND, Timperio A, Crawford D, Salmon J. Validity of a brief self-report instrument for assessing compliance with physical activity guidelines amongst adolescents. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(2):136–41.
Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Conway TL, Elder JP, Prochaska JJ, Brown M, et al. Environmental interventions for eating and physical activity: a randomized controlled trial in middle schools. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24:209–17.
Timperio A, Crawford D, Telford A, Salmon J. Perceptions about the local neighborhood and walking and cycling among children. Prev Med. 2004;38(1):39–47.
Salmon J, Arundell L, Hume C, Brown H, Hesketh K, Dunstan DW, et al. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8–9 year olds: the transform-Us! study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:759.
Salmon J, Brown H, Hume C. Effects of strategies to promote children’s physical activity on potential mediators. Int J Obes. 2009;33:S66–73.
Brown H, Hume C, Pearson N, Salmon J. A systematic review of intervention effects on potential mediators of children’s physical activity. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:165.
Lubans DR, Foster C, Biddle SJ. A review of mediators of behaviour in interventions to promote physical activity among children and adolescents. Prev Med. 2008;47:463–70.
Dewar DL, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Okely AD, Batterham M, Lubans DR. Exploring changes in physical activity, sedentary behaviors and hypothesized mediators in the NEAT girls group randomized controlled trial. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17(1):39–46.
Dewar DL, Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC. Development and evaluation of social cognitive measures related to adolescent physical activity. J Phys Act Health. 2013;10(4):544–55.
Robbins LB, Wu T-Y, Sikorskii A, Morley B. Psychometric assessment of the adolescent physical activity perceived benefits and barriers scales. J Nurs Meas. 2008;16(2):98–112.
Motl RW, Dishman RK, Saunders R, Dowda M, Felton G, Pate RR. Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in adolescent girls. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21(2):110–7.
Moore GF, Audrey S, Barker M, Bond L, Bonell C, Hardeman W, et al. Process evaluation of complex interventions: medical research council guidance. Br Med J. 2015;350:h1258.
Twisk JWR. Applied multilevel analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2006.
MacKinnon DP, Fairchild AJ, Fritz MS. Mediation analysis. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007;58:593–614.
Ridgers ND, Knowles ZR, Sayers J. Encouraging play in the natural environment: a child-focused evaluation of forest school. Child Geographies. 2012;10:55–71.
Wilson DK, Van Horn ML, Kitzman-Ulrich H, Saunders R, Pate R, Lawman HG, et al. Results of the “Active by Choice Today” (ACT) randomized trial for increasing physical activity in low-income and minority adolescents. Health Psychol. 2011;30(4):463–71.
Gouveia R, Karapanos E, Hassenzahl M. How do we engage with activity trackers? A longitudinal study of study of Habito (pp. 1305–16). Presented at: UbComp'15; September 7–11, 2015; Osaka, Japan.
Klesges LM, Estabrooks PA, Dzewaltowski DA, Bull SS, Glasgow RE. Beginning with the application in mind: designing and planning health behavior change interventions to enhance dissemination. Ann Behav Med. 2005;29(Suppl):66–75.
Milat AJ, King L, Bauman AE, Redman S. The concept of scalability: increasing the scale and potential adoption of health promotion interventions into policy and practice. Health Promot Int. 2012;28(4):285–98.
Ball K, Carver A, Downing K, Jackson M, O’Rourke K. Addressing the social determinants of inequities in physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Health Promot Int. 2015;30 Suppl 2:ii8–ii19.