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Table 1 Correlates of health service utilisation – for ‘GP visit in the past 12 months’ and ‘yearly health check-ups’

From: Why do men go to the doctor? Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with healthcare utilisation among a cohort of Australian men

  Model 1: Correlates of ‘GP visit in past 12 months’ Model 2: Correlates of ‘regular health check-ups’
18–34 years old men 35–55 years old men 18–34 years old men 35–55 years old men
Univariate regression Multivariate regression Univariate regression Multivariate regression Univariate regression Multivariate regression Univariate regression Multivariate regression
Odds ratio [95 % CI] Odds ratio [95 % CI] Odds ratio [95 % CI] Odds ratio [95 % CI] Odds ratio [95 % CI] Odds ratio [95 % CI] Odds ratio [95 % CI] Odds ratio [95 % CI]
Control variables
 Yearly health check-ups
  At least once per year 4.43 (3.35–5.86) 4.45 (3.35–5.92) 9.02 (7.05–11.52) 7.01 (5.46–9.01) - - - -
  Less often or never - - - - - - - -
 GP visit in past 12 months
  Yes - - - - 4.43 (3.35–5.86) 4.40 (3.31–5.85) 9.02 (7.05–11.52) 7.00 (5.45–8.98)
  No - - - - - - - -
 Diagnosis of health conditions in past 12 months
  None - - - - - - - -
  1 condition 2.30 (1.77–3.00) 2.11 (1.61–2.76) 3.40 (2.72–4.24) 2.57 (2.04–3.24) 1.37 (1.12–1.67) 1.21 (0.99–1.49) 2.13 (1.88–2.42) 1.82 (1.60–2.08)
  2 conditions 3.71 (2.36–5.86) 3.36 (2.09–5.38) 5.64 (3.92–8.12) 3.72 (2.55–5.42) 2.06 (1.58–2.68) 1.76 (1.33–2.32) 2.87 (2.44–3.37) 2.37 (2.00–2.81)
  3 or more conditions 4.23 (2.21–8.10) 4.37 (2.23–8.56) 6.23 (4.10–9.45) 3.17 (2.03–4.94) 1.73 (1.21–2.47) 1.39 (0.95–2.03) 3.90 (3.26–4.66) 3.08 (2.52–3.77)
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Remoteness
  Major City - - - - - - - -
  Inner Regional 0.72 (0.58–0.88) 0.68 (0.54–0.85) 0.73 (0.62–0.88) 0.77 (0.64–0.94) 0.95 (0.78–1.15) 1.05 (0.86–1.28) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.97 (0.84–1.11)
  Outer Regional 0.69 (0.55–0.86) 0.67 (0.53–0.85) 0.89 (0.73–1.08) 0.92 (0.74–1.13) 0.96 (0.78–1.18) 1.09 (0.87–1.36) 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.96 (0.83–1.11)
 Education
  Completed Year12 1.23 (1.02–1.49) 1.25 (1.00–1.55) 1.07 (0.92–1.24) 1.16 (0.97–1.37) 1.08 (0.90–1.29) 0.98 (0.81–1.20) 0.78 (0.70–0.86) 0.73 (0.65–0.82)
  Did not complete Year12 - - - - - - - -
 Country of birth
  Australia 1.22 (0.98–1.51) 1.31 (1.03–1.66) 1.04 (0.87–1.24) 1.10 (0.90–1.33) 0.89 (0.73–1.09) 0.78 (0.63–0.97) 0.97 (0.86–1.09) 0.88 (0.77–1.00)
  Overseas - - - - - - - -
 Marital status
  Never married - - - - - - - -
  Widowed, divorced, separated 1.03 (0.57–1.88) 0.73 (0.38–1.41) 1.61 (1.14–2.27) 1.36 (0.91–2.04) 1.09 (0.64–1.86) 0.86 (0.49–1.53) 1.37 (1.08–1.75) 1.35 (1.01–1.80)
  Married/de facto 1.32 (1.11–1.57) 1.17 (0.94–1.47) 1.56 (1.23–1.98) 1.57 (1.15–2.15) 0.76 (0.65–0.89) 0.67 (0.54–0.82) 1.00 (0.84–1.20) 0.95 (0.75–1.20)
 Employment status
  Currently employed 1.46 (1.17–1.83) 1.48 (1.16–1.89) 0.64 (0.47–0.86) 0.79 (0.56–1.11) 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.70 (0.58–0.83) 0.83 (0.68–1.02)
  Currently unemployed - - - - - - - -
 Private health insurance
  Yes 1.40 (1.18–1.66) 1.34 (1.11–1.62) 1.39 (1.19–1.62) 1.24 (1.04–1.47) 1.03 (0.88–1.20) 1.02 (0.86–1.20) 1.21 (1.09–1.35) 1.25 (1.11–1.42)
  No - - - - - - - -
 Did experience financial difficulty in past 12 months
  Yes, at least one 1.27 (1.06–1.53) 1.33 (1.08–1.63) 1.10 (0.92–1.30) 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.82 (0.68–0.98) 0.87 (0.78–0.98) 0.70 (0.62–0.80)
  No, none - - - - - - - -
 Being a father
  One or more children 1.39 (1.15–1.68) 1.39 (1.09–1.77) 1.30 (1.06–1.60) 1.22 (0.93–1.59) 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 1.01 (0.81–1.25) 0.96 (0.82–1.11) 0.93 (0.77–1.13)
  No children - - - - - - - -
Health and lifestyle factors
 Currently smoking
  Yes 0.90 (0.73–1.11) 0.86 (0.68–1.10) 0.66 (0.55–0.79) 0.66 (0.54–0.82) 1.07 (0.88–1.29) 1.12 (0.90–1.39) 0.82 (0.72–0.94) 0.87 (0.74–1.02)
  No - - - - - - - -
 Drinking
  Harmful consumption 1.01 (0.85–1.20) 1.07 (0.89–1.29) 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 0.82 (0.70–0.96) 0.80 (0.68–0.94) 0.77 (0.70–0.86) 0.73 (0.65–0.82)
  Non harmful consumption - - - - - - - -
 Self-rated health
  Very good/excellent 0.86 (0.71–1.03) 1.05 (0.85–1.29) 0.57 (0.49–0.68) 0.68 (0.57–0.83) 0.86 (0.73–1.02) 0.99 (0.82–1.18) 0.79 (0.71–0.88) 1.12 (0.98–1.25)
  Good or less - - - - - - - -
 Being obese
  Yes 1.13 (0.90–1.42) 0.92 (0.72–1.18) 1.59 (1.32–1.91) 1.13 (0.92–1.38) 1.44 (1.19–1.74) 1.42 (1.15–1.74) 1.57 (1.41–1.76) 1.33 (1.17–1.50)
  No - - - - - - - -
 Daily pain self-medication
  Yes 1.98 (1.13–3.47) 1.58 (0.86–2.87) 3.89 (2.59–5.85) 1.91 (1.24–2.94) 1.45 (0.99–2.12) 1.21 (0.81–1.80) 2.34 (1.97–2.77) 1.56 (1.29–1.88)
  No - - - - - - - -
  1. Logistic Regression Analyses; unweighted data; Total Sample = 13,763, Analytical sample = 9501, omitted cases = 4262; 18–34 years N = 3358, 35–55 years N = 6143