- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Spatiotemporal analysis of dengue fever in Nepal from 2010 to 2014
© The Author(s). 2016
- Received: 28 November 2015
- Accepted: 3 August 2016
- Published: 22 August 2016
Due to recent emergence, dengue is becoming one of the major public health problems in Nepal. The numbers of reported dengue cases in general and the area with reported dengue cases are both continuously increasing in recent years. However, spatiotemporal patterns and clusters of dengue have not been investigated yet. This study aims to fill this gap by analyzing spatiotemporal patterns based on monthly surveillance data aggregated at district.
Dengue cases from 2010 to 2014 at district level were collected from the Nepal government’s health and mapping agencies respectively. GeoDa software was used to map crude incidence, excess hazard and spatially smoothed incidence. Cluster analysis was performed in SaTScan software to explore spatiotemporal clusters of dengue during the above-mentioned time period.
Spatiotemporal distribution of dengue fever in Nepal from 2010 to 2014 was mapped at district level in terms of crude incidence, excess risk and spatially smoothed incidence. Results show that the distribution of dengue fever was not random but clustered in space and time. Chitwan district was identified as the most likely cluster and Jhapa district was the first secondary cluster in both spatial and spatiotemporal scan. July to September of 2010 was identified as a significant temporal cluster.
This study assessed and mapped for the first time the spatiotemporal pattern of dengue fever in Nepal. Two districts namely Chitwan and Jhapa were found highly affected by dengue fever. The current study also demonstrated the importance of geospatial approach in epidemiological research. The initial result on dengue patterns and risk of this study may assist institutions and policy makers to develop better preventive strategies.
- Crude incidence
- Excess risk
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease which is transmitted from one person to another through bites of female Aedes–spp. mosquito . It is one of the major public health problems for tropical and subtropical countries all over the world. Nearly one third of the world population lives in countries under the risk of dengue fever. Annual dengue infection was estimated around one hundred millions globally . Dengue transmission has expanded in new geographic areas and the severity of infections has increased in areas where infection was already endemic . Global burden of dengue has exceeded malaria and the problem is likely to be more severe in the future  due to climate change, increasing trend of urbanization and migration . Despite such massive problems, there are no effective initiatives to prevent dengue and no medicine for causal treatment available yet . Therefore understanding the dynamics of dengue transmission seems imperative to reduce the public health burden.
The Aedes aegypti mosquito which is the main vector of dengue, lives in urban habitats and breeds mostly in man-made containers [7, 8]. Unlike other mosquitoes it is a daytime feeder; its peak biting periods are early in the morning and in the evening before dusk . Several factors determine occurrences and spread of dengue by affecting life cycle and behavior of the mosquito. Temperature and rainfall are the most significant factors for vectors development and dynamics [4, 9–13]. Very low temperature limits not only egg hatching and larval development process  but also extrinsic incubation period and viral development rate . Freezing temperatures in higher altitudes destroys larvae and eggs of mosquitoes during winter time . Adult mosquito survival rates are linked with lower temperature and higher humidity. Rainfall is a source of fresh water for mosquito breeding in water containers. However excessive rainfall is negatively associated with dengue by washing out the eggs [17, 18]. Further, high population density and low socioeconomic status are positively associated with dengue occurrence [17–19]. Due to variation in these factors, occurrence and spread of dengue fever also vary over space and time. To understand the variation of dengue fever, several studies have been carried out to explore the spatiotemporal pattern and risk factors of dengue fever in other areas of the world [16–19].
In Nepal, dengue is an emerging disease which was first reported in 2004 . Since then, it has been spreading rapidly over wide geographical areas. The number of both confirmed dengue cases and dengue reported districts are continuously increasing. Now, dengue is firmly established in the tropical and subtropical plains of Nepal, the Terai, and is migrating upwards  posing significant challenges to the public health officials. Till 2014, dengue has been reported in 32 districts and confirmed dengue cases reached 2442 and 5 deaths toll . These statistics are even believed to be underreported and prevalence of dengue is considered significantly high . Ae. aegptiis now widely distributed in major cities of the Terai and also migrated up to 2000 m altitude in response to climate change  posing a high risk of outbreak even in major cities in the hill districts (e.g. Kathmandu and Pokhara) . All four serotypes of dengue virus circulate in Nepal with the host, vectors and the environment  which further increase risk of dengue infection and outbreak in Nepal. To our best knowledge, there are not scientific studies to explore spatial epidemiology of dengue in Nepal. For the improvement of government efforts to control dengue such studies would be of utmost importance.
In recent years, GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and spatial statistics were frequently used to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of dengue and other infectious as well as non-infectious diseases [19, 27, 28]. Cheong et al. assessed spatiotemporal patterns of dengue in Malaysia combining the address and sub district levels . Banu et al. studied 50 years (1955–2004) spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-pacific region . Similarly spatial analysis of dengue in Guangdong province, China was conducted for incidence data from 2001 to 2006 . Most of the studies analyzing spatiotemporal patterns of dengue have used SaTScan and GeoDa public domain software [19, 27, 28, 31]. GeoDa software provides several ways to visualize and map distribution pattern of disease by correcting for spatial autocorrelation and spatial dependencies . SaTScan software provides a powerful tool to detect, delineate, and validate disease clusters, risk population, and factors associated with them over space and time. Further SaTScan adjusts for confounding variables, and reduces pre-selection bias regarding the size and location of clusters. The current study aims to assess and map spatiotemporal patterns of reported dengue cases based on monthly surveillance data aggregated at 75 districts of Nepal.
In this study, dengue incidence data was acquired from Epidemiology and Disease Control Division (EDCD) of Department of Health Services (DOHs). DOHs is, under the Ministry of Health and Population, responsible for collecting, processing and publishing disease data including dengue in Nepal. Disease data in Nepal are reported to the EDCD which is the Nepal government’s authority for the prevention and control of infectious disease. Disease data are usually reported on a weekly basis but reported dailyduring outbreak. For this study dengue data was available from 2010 to 2014. During the study period 2343 dengue cases were reported to EDCD based on either Immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests.
The district boundary map and the population data used in the study were obtained from Department of Survey, Government of Nepal, and the National Censes Report-2011, published by Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) respectively.
GIS mapping and smoothing
Where: DF cases are the dengue fever cases reported from the district (i) each year (y) from 2010–2014 and the population is population reported in 2011 census.
Following Fang et al., we computed a 5 years annual raw rate map . This map was subject to spatial autocorrelation and therefore cannot provide real distribution information. Therefore, we further processed 5 years averaged incidence rate to produce spatially smoothed dengue distribution map through correction of spatial autocorrelation. To do this, we used the empirical Bayes approach  available in GeoDa. We first created a spatial weight file in GeoDa that contain s neighbored structure using the K-nearest neighborhood criteria (four districts in our case) which was later loaded to make spatially smoothed distribution maps. To assess the risk of dengue, an excess hazard map was computed. The excess hazard represents the ratio of observed incidence at each district over the average incidence of all endemic areas . In the excess hazard map, value one is usually determined as a cut-off value whereas below one indicates lower incidence than expected and above it indicates incidence higher than expected. All GIS mapping and smoothing works were implemented in GeoDa, 1.6.7 software.
Spatiotemporal cluster analysis
SaTScan software version 9.4.2 developed by Kuldlorff [35, 36] was used to detect and evaluate dengue clusters. All three scanning methods (purely spatial, purely temporal and spatiotemporal) were employed to assess the geographical areas with highest dengue risk neglecting the temporal dimension, to find highest risk period neglecting the space dimension and to locate space-time outbreak addressing the effect of purely spatial and purely temporal variation in the incidence data. Poisson-based model was employed in all three analyses.
LIR = Log Likelihood Ratio
C = total number of cases
c = observed number of cases within the window
E[c] = covariate adjusted expected number of cases within the window under the null hypothesis,
I() = indicator function
For purely spatial and space-time analyses, SaTScan also identifies secondary clusters in the data in addition to the most likely cluster, and orders them according to their likelihood ratio test (LLR) statistic. SaTScan reports both geographically overlapping and non-overlapping secondary clusters. Due to the high log likelihood values with the most likely cluster, these clusters provide little additional information. However, non-overlapping secondary clusters are considered significant.
The maximum cluster size was set to 50 % of the population at risk for spatial scan; to account for differences in population density  and a non-overlapping secondary cluster was set to be reported [31, 37]. In temporal scan analysis, a value of 6 months was chosen for maximum temporal window size to capture seasonality in dengue incidence. In the space- time scan, purely spatial and purely temporal window parameters were taken. We chose high rates option in the scan for areas option to account for clusters.
Spatial and temporal distribution of dengue in Nepal
The intensity of risk is labeled using bipolar graduate symbol where red side shows excess risk higher than expected while the blue shows excess risks less than expected. Among the 6 districts withexcess risk higher than expected, Chitwan and Jhapa had highest excess hazard while the Makawanpur and Rupendehi had the lowest excess risk.
Distribution of dengue clusters
Dengue cluster (2010–2014) based on purely spatial analysis under the Poisson Discrete probability model
Parsa, Rautahat, Bara, Makwanpur
Nawalparasi, Palpa, Rupandehi, Syangja
Dengue cluster (2010–2014) based on spatial temporal analysis under the Poisson Discrete
Parsa + 23 districts
In this study, exploratory data analysis and spatiotemporal cluster analysis of dengue fever were conducted at district level in Nepal. We mapped dengue fever in terms of crude incidence, excess risk and spatially smoothed incidence rate. In addition, we further evaluated spatiotemporal distribution patterns and explored significant spatial, temporal and spatiotemporal clusters. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to map and analyze spatiotemporal pattern of dengue in Nepal.
Due to availability of data in some sort of spatial aggregation, choropleth mapping technique is popular in disease mapping compared to dot map or isopleths map [33, 38]. Aggregated data is either directly plotted in the map or rate of incidence is computed using base population and level of spatial aggregation. Therefore, we also used choropleth-mapping technique to visualize the distribution of dengue fever. However, when disease incidences or population of area is too small, both the highest and lowest values are concentrated towards the highest values and map becomes misleading . This problem in disease mapping is also known as “small numbers” problem. Small numbers problem commonly appears when the disease is relatively new and not fully endemic across the country or region  or due to the variable size of spatial aggregation unit . The advantage of smoothing of geographically aggregated data is that it uncovers unexpected features, patterns and gradients that one might not detect from direct display . In addition, smoothing can reduce unusual values or outliers. Therefore a spatially smoothed map (Fig. 4) presents a better distribution pattern of dengue incidence and shows clearly where the problem was most severe.
The results of the cluster analysis showed the significant spatiotemporal variation of dengue fever in Nepal. Although dengue disease is spreading rapidly to new areas [26, 42], it is highly localized in particular locations and times. Compared to other regions of the country, central and eastern Terai are more vulnerable to dengue. In mapping and cluster assessment, these two districts appeared as a hotspot of dengue. Suitable climate, high population density and excessive movements of the people could attribute to a high dengue cluster. Due to gateway location, we believe that reported dengue cases from other hill districts of this region might have acquired infection from Chitwan. Further investigation is necessary to give more accurate answers about the primary cluster of dengue in Chitwan.
We observed strong inter-annual and seasonal variation of dengue in Nepal. Two major peaks were observed during the 5 years interval: one in August 2010 and another in October 2013 (Fig. 5). Regarding the seasonality, dengue fever follows the pattern of monsoon rainfall. With some time lag, the major outbreak occurs in the post-monsoon seasons; September-November . Post-monsoon season provided the most suitable weather conditions including moderate rainfall and mild mean temperature and optimum temperature range for vector to live .
Due to the neighborhood effects , we observed an overestimated spatiotemporal cluster including Parsa and its adjacent 23 districts. No dengue incidences were recorded during 2010–2014 in these 23 districts. An overestimated cluster is identified when the expected counts are low and it is surrounded by other location with a lot of cases . Hence careful selection of scanning parameter and interpretation of the result is necessary to better represent and interpret the clusters .
Moreover, this study also clearly demonstrated the importance of geospatial technology in spatiotemporal assessments of infectious disease. To our best knowledge, such studies have not been done before in Nepal. Therefore, this study could be an excellent example to promote such studies at higher temporal and spatial scale in the future. Research results and approaches adopted here could be valuable to the public health authority to design and execute an intervention program on dengue control. However, there are some limitations with this study. Possibility of underreporting  due to those who did not come to health facilities for treatment and ill cooperation of private health institution in government reporting system is the first limitation of this study. Mapping and analysis on coarsely aggregated data, month and district, may have missed daily or weekly local dengue cluster is the second limitation of this study. If we had daily or weekly dengue cases at lower spatial unit (e.g. settlement, VDC, municipality), we could detect outbreak dynamics and movements of hotspots [29, 37]. Thirdly, this study only analyzed distribution and did not analyze possible environmental risk factors associated with clustering and therefore we could not pinpoint such risk factors. We are expecting to examine such factors in our next research paper.
This study assessed and mapped the spatiotemporal pattern of dengue fever in Nepal for the first time. Distribution of dengue fever was found highly clustered around Chitwan and Jhapa districts. In the temporal context; dengue is highly seasonal, starts with onset of monsoon, and reaches peak in the post monsoon season. The results of this study are not only to provide an initial risk assessment but also lay foundation to pursue further investigation into the environmental risk factors. This study also clearly demonstrated the importance of geospatial technology in mapping and spatiotemporal assessment of infectious disease. The method adopted here can be used for other diseases and higher spatiotemporal scale. The results of this study may assist health authorities to develop better preventive strategies and increase public interventions effectiveness.
DOH, Department of Health Services; EDCD, Epidemiology and Disease Control Division; GIS, Geographic Information System; SaTScan, spatiotemporal scan; VDC, Village Development Committee
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Dr. Yuva Raj Pokhrel, Senior Medical Officer of EDCD for providing us dengue incidence data. Dr. Keshav Prasad Paudel, postdoctoral research fellow at University of Bergen, Norway, is also acknowledged for his critical comments on early draft. Finally, we would like to thank the reviewers for their comments that helped to improve an earlier version of the manuscript.
Bipin Kumar Acharya and Shahid Naeem are funded by CAS-TWAS Presidential Fellowship Program for their PhD study. Special Fund for Forest Scientific Research in the Public Welfare (No. 201504323) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA12A302) are acknowledged for their financial support.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
BKA conceived the project, collected data, conducted analysis and drafted the manuscript. CXC Cao conceived the project, interpreted the result and modified the manuscript. TL interpreted the result and modified the manuscript. WC contributed to interpret the result and modify the manuscript. SN interpreted the results and worked in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Gubler DJ. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998 11(3):480–96.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Brady OJ, Gething PW, Bhatt S, Messina JP, Brownstein JS, Hoen AG, et al. Refining the global spatial limits of dengue virus transmission by evidence-based consensus. Reithinger R, editor. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(8):e1760.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL, et al. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature. 2013;496(7446):504–7.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Naish S, Dale P, Mackenzie JS, McBride J, Mengersen K, Tong S. Climate change and dengue: a critical and systematic review of quantitative modelling approaches. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):167..View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wilson ME, Chen LH. Dengue: update on Epidemiology. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2015;17:1. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11908-014-0457-2 Accessed 7 Jul 2016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guzman A, Istúriz RE. Update on the global spread of dengue. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36 Suppl 1:S40–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guzman MG, Halstead SB, Artsob H, Buchy P, Farrar J, Gubler DJ, et al. Dengue: a continuing global threat. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8(12):S7–16.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dengue and severe dengue [Internet]. World Health Organization (WHO); 2015. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/ Accessed 1 Feb 2016.
- Sofy AR, Mousa AA, Soliman AM. Dougdoug KAE-. the limiting of climatic factors and predicting of suitable habitat for citrus gummy bark disease occurrence using GIS. Int J Virol. 2012;8(2):165–77.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Morin CW, Comrie AC, Ernst K. Climate and Dengue Transmission: Evidence and Implications. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121(11–12):1264–72.Google Scholar
- Arboleda S, Jaramillo-O N, Peterson AT. Mapping environmental dimensions of dengue fever transmission risk in the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009;6(12):3040–55.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bai L, Morton LC, Liu Q, et al. Climate change and mosquito-borne diseases in China: a review. Glob Health. 2013;9(10):1–22.Google Scholar
- Wu P-C, Lay J-G, Guo H-R, Lin C-Y, Lung S-C, Su H-J. Higher temperature and urbanization affect the spatial patterns of dengue fever transmission in subtropical Taiwan. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407(7):2224–33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dj G. The global pandemic of dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever: current status and prospects for the future. Ann Acad Med. 1998;27(2):227–34.Google Scholar
- Watts DM, Burke D, Harrison B, Whitmire R, Nisalak A. Effect of temperature on the vector efficiency of Aedes aegypti for dengue 2 virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;36:143–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gubler DJ. Epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a public health, social and economic problem in the 21st century. Trends Microbiol. 2002;10(2):100–3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Méndez-Lázaro P, Muller-Karger F, Otis D, McCarthy M, Peña-Orellana M. Assessing climate variability effects on dengue incidence in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(9):9409–28.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- de Melo DPO, Scherrer LR, Eiras AE. Dengue fever occurrence and vector detection by larval survey, Ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: a space-time clusters analysis. Hansen IA, editor. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42125.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Toan DTT, Hu W, Thai PQ, Hoat LN, Wright P, Martens P. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam. Glob Health Action. 2015;6:0. Available from: http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/18632 Accessed 5 Mar 2015.
- Pandey BD, Rai SK, Morita K, Kurane I. First case of Dengue virus infection in Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J NMCJ. 2004;6(2):157–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dhimal M, Ahrens B, Kuch U. Climate change and spatiotemporal distributions of vector-borne diseases in nepal – a systematic synthesis of literature. Baylis M, editor. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0129869.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- first. Annual Report, 2013–2014. In: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population, Department of Health Services, editor. Annual Report, 2013–2014. 2013th–2014th. Teku: Kathmandu; 2015.Google Scholar
- Sharma SP. Dengue outbreak affects more than 7000 people in Nepal. BMJ. 2010;41(oct04 2):c5496–6.Google Scholar
- Dhimal M, Ahrens B, Kuch U. Species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal. Parasit Vectors. 2014;7(540):10–1186.Google Scholar
- Dumre SP, Shakya G, Na-Bangchang K, Eursitthichai V, Rudi Grams H, Upreti SR, et al. Dengue virus and japanese encephalitis virus epidemiological shifts in nepal: a case of opposing trends. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88(4):677–80.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pun SB. Dengue-an emerging disease in Nepal. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2011;51:184. Available from: http://www.jnma.com.np/jnma/index.php/jnma/article/download/33/372 Accessed 13 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
- Fang L, Yan L, Liang S, de Vlas SJ, Feng D, Han X, et al. Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:77.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Xiao G, Xu C, Wang J, Yang D, Wang L. Spatial-temporal pattern and risk factor analysis of bacillary dysentery in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan urban region of China. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:998.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ling CY, Gruebner O, Krämer A, Lakes T. Spatio-temporal patterns of dengue in Malaysia: combining address and sub-district level. Geospat Health. 2014;9(1):131–40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Banu S, Hu W, Guo Y, Naish S, Tong S. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the asia-pacific region, 1955–2004. Coffey LL, editor. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89440.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu C, Liu Q, Lin H, Xin B, Nie J. Spatial analysis of dengue fever in Guangdong Province, China, 2001–2006. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2014;26(1):58–66.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anselin L, Syabri I. GeoDa: An Introduction to Spatial Data Analysis. 2005. Available from: http://spatial.uchicago.edu/geoda. Accessed 7 Aug 2016.
- Pringle DG. Mapping disease risk estimates based on small numbers: an assessment of empirical Bayes techniques. Econ Soc Rev. 1996;27(4):341–63.Google Scholar
- Anselin L, Syabri I, Kho Y. GeoDa: An Introduction to Spatial Data Analysis. Geogr Anal. 2006;38(1):5–22.Google Scholar
- Kulldorff M. SaTScan TM User Guide for version 9 . 4 [Internet]. version 9 . 4. Available from: http://www.satscan.org/. Accesed 15 Sept 2015.
- Kulldorff M. A spatial scan statistic. Commun Stat - Theory Methods. 1997;26(6):1481–96.Google Scholar
- Banu S, Hu W, Hurst C, Guo Y, Islam MZ, Tong S. Space-time clusters of dengue fever in Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17(9):1086–91.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Plaza-Rodríguez C, Appel B, Kaesbohrer A, Filter M. Discussing State-of-the-Art Spatial Visualization Techniques Applicable for the Epidemiological Surveillance Data on the Example of Campylobacter spp. in Raw Chicken Meat. Zoonoses Public Health. 2016;63(5):358–69.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young SG, Tullis JA, Cothren J. A remote sensing and GIS-assisted landscape epidemiology approach to West Nile virus. Appl Geogr. 2013;45:241–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chaikaew N, Tripathi NK, Souris M. Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8(1):36.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz GG. Geographic trends in prostate cancer mortality: an application of spatial smoothers and the need for adjustment. Ann Epidemiol. 1997;7(6):430.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poudel A, Shah Y, Khatri B, Joshi DR, Bhatta DR, Pandey BD. The burden of dengue infection in some vulnerable regions of Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J NMCJ. 2012;14(2):114–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pandey BD, Pandey K, Neupane B, Shah Y, Adhikary KP, Gautam I, et al. Persistent dengue emergence: the seven years surrounding the 2010 epidemic in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015;26:trv087.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dhimal M, Gautam I, Kreß A, Müller R, Kuch U. Spatio-temporal distribution of dengue and lymphatic filariasis vectors along an Altitudinal Transect in Central Nepal. Lammie PJ, editor. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(7):e3035.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chen J, Roth RE, Naito AT, Lengerich EJ, MacEachren AM. Geovisual analytics to enhance spatial scan statistic interpretation: an analysis of U.S. cervical cancer mortality. Int J Health Geogr. 2008;7(1):57.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar