Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, Daniels SR, Dishman RK, Gutin B, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;146:732–7.
Landry BW, Driscoll SW. Physical activity in children and adolescents. PM R. 2012;4:826–32.
Cooper AR, Goodman A, Page AS, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, van Sluijs E, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth: the International children’s accelerometry database (ICAD). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:113.
Spittaels H, Van Cauwenberghe E, Verbestel V, De Meester F, Van Dyck D, Verloigne M, et al. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity time across the lifespan: a cross-sectional study in four age groups. Int J Behav Nutr Act. 2012;9:149.
Tremblay MS, Colley RC, Saunders TJ, Healy GN, Owen N. Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010;35:725–40.
WHO. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
Ekelund U, Tomkinson GR, Armstrong N. What proportion of youth are physically active? Measurement issues, levels and recent time trends. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:859–65.
Konstabel K, Veidebaum T, Verbestel V, Moreno LA, Bammann K, Tornaitis M. Objectively measured physical activity in European children: the IDEFICS study. Int J Obes. 2014;38:S135–43.
Kettner S, Kobel S, Fischbach N, Drenowatz C, Dreyhaupy J, Wirt T. Objectively determined physical activity levels of primary school children in south-west Germany. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:895.
Laguna M, Ruiz JR, Gallardo C, Garcia-Pastor T, Lara MT, Aznar S. Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49:942–9.
Sigmund E, Sigmundová D, Šnoblová R, Madarásová GA. Acti’Trainer-determined segmented moderate-to-vigorous physical activity patterns among normal-weight and overweight-to-obese Czech schoolchildren. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173:321–9.
Colley RC, Garriguet D, Janssen I, Craig CL, Clarke J, Tremblay MS. Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep. 2011;22:1.
Steele RM, van Sluijs EMF, Cassidy A, Griffin SJ, Ekelund U. Targeting sedentary time or moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity: independent relations with adiposity in a population-based sample of 10-y-old British children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1185–92.
Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Mȃsse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical Activity in the United States Measured by Accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:181–8.
Verloigne M, Van Lippevelde W, Maes L, Yildirim M, Chinapaw M, Manios Y, et al. Levels of physical activity and sedentary time among 10- to 12-year-old boys and girls across 5 European countries using accelerometers: an observational study within the ENERGY-project. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:34.
Ortega BF, Konstabel K, Pasquali E, Ruiz JR, Hurtig-Wennlöf A, Mäestu J et al. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a cohort study. PloS ONE. 2013. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060871.
Cain KL, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Van Dyck T, Calhoon L. Using accelerometers in youth physical activity studies: a review of methods. J Phys Act Health. 2013;10:437–50.
Nilsson A, Andersen LB, Ommundsen Y, Froberg K, Sardinha LB, Piehl-Aulin K, et al. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). BMC Public Health. 2009;9:322.
Basterfield L, Reilly JK, Pearce MS, Parkinson KN, Adamson AJ, Reilly JJ, et al. Longitudinal associations between sports participation, body composition and physical activity from childhood to adolescence. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18:178–82.
Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, D’hondt E, Cardon G. Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009;6:25.
Dorsey KB, Herrin J, Krumholtz HM. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011. doi: 10.3109/17477166.2010.490586.
Goran MI. Measurement issues related to studies of childhood obesity: assessment of body composition, body fat distribution, physical activity and food intake. Pediatrics. 1998;101:505–18.
Jiménez-Pavón D, Fernández-Vázquez A, Alexy U, Pedrero R, Cuenca-García M, Polito A. Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:667.
Loprinzi PD, Smit E, Cardinal BJ, Crespo C, Brodowicz G, Andersen R. Valid and invalid accelerometry data among children and adolescents: comparison across demographic, behavioural, and biological variables. Am J Health Promot. 2014;28:155–8.
Cole TJ, Bellizi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ. 2000;320:1240–3.
Marfell-Jones M, Olds T, Carter JEL. International standards for anthropometric assessments. ISAK; 2006.
Nagy E, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Manios Y, Beghin L, Iliescu C, Censi L, et al. Harmonization process and reliability assessment of anthropometric measurements in a multicenter study in adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:S58–65.
Utsal L, Tillmann V, Zilmer M, Mäestu J, Purge P, Jürimäe J, et al. Elevated serum IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, CRP, and IFN-ɣ levels in 10- to 11-year-old boys with increased BMI. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012;78:31–9.
Slaughter M, Lohman TG, Boileau RA, Horsvill CA, Stillman RJ, Van Loan MD, et al. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol. 1988;60:709–23.
Keefer DJ, Caputo JL, Tseh W. Waist-to-height ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk in youth. J Sch Health. 2013;83:805–9.
Chaput JP, Leduc G, Boyer C, Bélanger P, LeBlanc AG, Borghese MM et al. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration: independent and combined associations with adiposity in canadian children. Nutrition & Diabetes. 2014. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.14.
Lätt E, Mäestu J, Ortega FB, Rääsk T, Jürimäe T, Jürimäe J. Vigorous physical activity rather than sedentary behaviour predicts overweight and obesity in pubertal boys: a 2-year follow-up study. Scand J Public Health. 2015;43:276–82.
Vaitkeviciute D, Lätt E, Mäestu J, Jürimäe T, Saar M, Purge P, et al. Physical activity and bone mineral accrual in boys with different body mass parameters during puberty: a longitudinal study. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e107759.
Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity of children. J Sports Sci. 2008;26:1557–65.
Ivuskans A, Mäestu J, Jürimäe T, Lätt E, Purge P, Saar M, et al. Sedentary time has a negative influence on bone mineral parameters in peripubertal boys: a 1-year prospective study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2015;33:85–92.
Hjorth MF, Chaput J-P, Ritz C, Dalskov S-M, Andersen R, Astrup A, et al. Fatness predicts decreased physical activity and increased sedentary time, but not vice versa: support from a longitudinal study in 8- to 11-year-old children. Int J Obes. 2014;38:959–65.
Guinhouya BC, Samouda H, de Beaufort C. Level of physical activity among children and adolescents in Europe: a review of physical activity assessed objectively by accelerometry. Public Health. 2013;127:301–11.
Basterfield L, Pearce MS, Adamson AJ, Frary JK, Parkinson KN, Wright CM. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and adiposity in English children. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42:445–51.
Ridgers ND, Timperio A, Cerin E, Salmon J. Compensation of physical activity and sedentary time in primary school children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46:1564–9.
Pereira S, Gomes TN, Borges A, Santos D, Souza M, dos Santos FK, et al. Variability and stability in daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among 10 year old children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:9248–63.
LeBlanc AG, Katzmarzyk PT, Barreira TV, Broyles ST, Chaput J-P, Church TS, et al. Correlates of total sedentary time and screen time in 9–11 year-old children around the world: the international study of childhood obesity, lifestyle and the environment. PLoS One. 2015;10:e129622. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129622.
Moliner-Urdiales D, Ortega FB, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Rey-Lopez JP, Gracia-Marco L, Widhalm K, et al. Association of physical activity with muscular strength and fat-free mass in adolescents: the HELENA study. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109:1119–27.
Aznar S, Naylor PJ, Silva P, Pérez M, Angulo T, Laguna M, et al. Patterns of physical activity in Spanish children: a descriptive pilot study. Child Care Health Dev. 2011;37:322–8.
Thompson AM, Campagna PD, Durant M, Murphy RJ, Rehman LA, Wadsworth LA. Are overweight students in grade 3,7, and 11 less physically active than their healthy weight counterparts? Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009;4:28–35.
Kwon S, Janz KF, Burns TL, Levy SM. Association between light-intensity physical activity and adiposity in childhood. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2011;23:218–29.
Johannsen DL, Knuth ND, Huizenga R, Rood JC, Ravussin E, Hall KD. Metabolic slowing with massive weight loss despite preservation of fat-free mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:2489–96.
Lohman TG. Assessment of body composition in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 1989;1:19–30.