- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Differences in consumer use of food labels by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics
© Bleich and Wolfson. 2015
- Received: 30 April 2015
- Accepted: 18 December 2015
- Published: 22 December 2015
Little is known about national patterns in the use of fast food and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics.
We analyzed the Consumer Behavior Module in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 among adults (N = 9,690). For each of the outcome variables – use of packed food and fast food menu labels – multiple logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential differences in population characteristics by weight loss activities and demographic characteristics.
Overall, 69 percent of adults reported they would use fast food information and 76 percent reported using the nutrition facts panel on packaged foods. Adults trying to lose weight had a greater likelihood of reporting use of nutrition information to choose fast foods (OR = 1.72; 95 % CI: 1.29, 2.29) and using the nutrition facts panel on food labels (OR = 1.92; 95 % CI: 1.60, 2.30). Black and Hispanic adults were more likely to report using ingredients lists on packaged foods compared to Whites (White −63 %, Black/Hispanic −68 %, p < 0.05).
Regardless of weight loss activities or demographic characteristics, a majority of adults report they would use fast food nutrition information.
- Fast food labels
- Packaged food labels
- Weight loss behaviors
The federal government has mandated nutritional labeling on the majority of packaged foods since 1990 through the Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990 . More recently, the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) required restaurants and similar food service establishment chains with 20 or more locations in the United States to provide calorie information on their menus and menu boards with a statement addressing daily recommended caloric intake . The Food and Drug Administration has finalized the menu labeling regulations for chain restaurants which are expected to be implemented in December 2016. Both labeling schemes have the goal of helping consumers make healthier or lower calorie dietary choices and potentially lessen the burden of the obesity epidemic which currently affects one-third of American adults  and costs $147 billion in U.S. health spending annually .
Generally, evidence suggests that consumers perceive nutrition labels to be a credible source of information and many consumers report using nutrition labels to guide their food selections . In addition, the use of nutrition labels is associated with a healthier diet . For instance, one study found that when consumers are presented with calorie information they chose the high-calorie items approximately a third less often , and another study found that when exposed to calorie information at the point-of-purchase, people buy food with fewer calories . Calorie information in fast food restaurants or on packaged foods, therefore, has the potential to have a considerable impact on consumer behavior – a particularly important area of research given consumers’ significant underestimation of the amount of calories in the foods they consume [6, 8].
However, consumer use of nutrition labels is not uniform. Females, higher income individuals, health conscious individuals, and more educated individuals are more likely to report looking at food packaging nutrition labels  – groups which are generally at lower risk for obesity . Prior nutrition knowledge and a desire to eat healthy are also associated with using food packaging nutrition labels . In addition, adults trying to lose weight may be more likely to use food labels as a guide to healthier choices. Prior research suggests that among adults trying to lose weight, two of the most common weight-loss strategies are eating fewer calories and eating less fat .
The recent incorporation of the Consumer Behavior Module into the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which asks about the use of both packaged and fast food menu labels, presents a unique opportunity for a more comprehensive understanding of national use of nutrition labels in both fast food restaurants and on packaged foods among a national sample of U.S. adults. The primary aim of this study was to describe patterns in the use of fast food menu labeling and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies. The secondary aim was to examine whether use of fast food menu labeling and packaged food labels differed by demographic characteristics, particularly those associated with obesity risk (socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity). We hypothesized that food label use would be higher among adults trying to lose weight compared to those who were not. We further hypothesized that food label use would be higher among groups at lower risk for obesity.
Data and design
Data was obtained from the nationally representative NHANES (2007–2010). The NHANES is a population-based survey designed to collect information on the health and nutrition of the U.S. population. Participants were selected based on a multi-stage, clustered, probability sampling strategy. Our analysis combined the continuous NHANES data collection (2007–2010) to look at overall patterns during that time period. A complete description of data-collection procedures and analytic guidelines are available elsewhere (www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm).
The study sample consisted of adults ages 20 and older who completed the dietary interview in the NHANES. Survey respondents were excluded if they were pregnant or had diabetes at the time of data collection or if their dietary recall was incomplete or unreliable (as determined by the NHANES staff). The final analytic sample included 9,690 adults. Consent for the study was obtained by the NHANES staff.
Packaged food labels
The Consumer Behavior Module in the NHANES asks detailed questions about use of packaged food labels. Each respondent was asked the following: 1) How often do you use the nutrition facts panel?; 2) How often do you use the list of ingredients?; 3) How often do you use the size of serving?; 4) How often do you use the health claim?; and 5) How often do you use percent daily value? Response categories ranged from: always, most of the time, sometimes, rarely, never, and never seen. We characterized respondents as ‘using’ each packaged food label component if they responded always, most of the time or sometimes based on the cut-points in the data. Of note, only those respondents who completed a dietary interview portion of the NHANES were eligible for the Consumer Behavior Module.
Fast food menu labels
The Consumer Behavior Module in the NHANES also asks detailed questions about use of fast food menu labels. Each respondent was asked the following: 1) Whether they saw nutrition information on fast food menus (response categories – yes/no); 2) Whether they used nutrition information to choose fast foods (response categories – yes/no); and 3) Whether they would use fast food nutrition information (response categories – often, sometimes, rarely, never). We characterized respondents as ‘would use’ fast food nutritional information if they responded often or sometimes based on the cut-points in the data.
Weight loss activities
Respondents were classified as pursuing weight loss activities if they answered ‘yes’ to the survey question “During the past 12 months, have you tried to lose weight?” If they answered affirmatively, they were asked a series of detailed questions about the types of weight loss activities they were engaged in which were categorized into four groups: dietary changes (e.g., ate less, switched to lower calorie foods), physical activity (e.g., exercised), commercial diets (e.g., weight loss program) and other (e.g., prescription diet pills, use of laxatives). Virtually all respondents who reported that they were trying to lose weight engaged in at least one weight loss activity (99 %) Of note, prescription diet pills and non-prescription supplements were not placed in a standalone group due to low levels of reported utilization (N, prescription = 96; N, non-prescription = 230).
Race was characterized into three mutually exclusive categories: 1) non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Mexican American. Education was categorized into three mutually exclusive categories: 1) less than high school; 2) high school (or GED) and 3) more than high school.
All analyses were weighted to be representative of the general population and conducted using STATA, version 12 (StataCorp, L.P., College Station, TX) to account for the complex sampling structure. For each of the outcome variables – use of packed food and fast food menu labels – multiple logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential differences in population characteristics by weight loss activities and demographic characteristics, including gender and household income. Using post-estimation commands, we calculated the predicted probability of using fast food menu labels and packaged food labels. For all models, statistical significance was determined at p < 0.05. All covariates were included in the models based on the literature regardless of statistical significance [9, 11, 12].
Characteristics of US adults (aged ≥20 y) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010a, overall and by weight loss activities
Weight loss efforts
Pursuing weight loss activities
No weight loss activities
P for diff
≥ 65 y
Less than high school
High school (or GED)
More than high school
Living with a partner
Poverty income ratio
< 130 % FPL
≥ 130 % FPL
Overall label use
Percentage of U.S. adults (ages 20+) using fast food menu labels and packaged food labels, overall and by weight loss activities, NHANES 2007–2010a
Weight loss activities
Pursuing weight loss activities
No weight loss activities
Mean ± SEM
Mean ± SEM
Mean ± SEM
Fast Food Menu Labelb
Saw nutrition info on fast food menu (N = 1,332)
22 ± 1
22 ± 1
22 ± 2
Used nutrition info to choose fast foods (N = 599)
9 ± 1
11 ± 1*
7 ± 1
Would use fast food nutrition info (N = 4,564)
69 ± 1
73 ± 1*
65 ± 1
Use nutrition facts panel on food label (N = 5,926)
76 ± 1
82 ± 1*
72 ± 1
Use of ingredient list on food label (N = 5,241)
64 ± 1
68 ± 1*
61 ± 1
Use of serving size on food label (N = 4,967)
62 ± 1
67 ± 1*
58 ± 2
Use of percent daily value on food label (N = 4,653)
56 ± 1
60 ± 2*
53 ± 1
Use of health claims on food packages (N = 5,388)
66 ± 1
69 ± 1*
62 ± 1
Label use by weight loss activities
Adjusted association between use of food labels and weight loss activities, NHANES 2007–2010
Weight Loss Activities
N = 3,842
N = 3,480
N = 2,310
N = 665
N = 402
OR [95 % CI]
OR [95 % CI]
OR [95 % CI]
OR [95 % CI]
OR [95 % CI]
Fast Food Menu Label
Saw nutrition info on fast food menu
1.00 [0.77, 1.29]
0.96 [0.70, 1.32]
1.02 [0.77, 1.34]
1.43* [1.01, 2,02]
1.14 [0.75, 1.73]
Used nutrition info to choose fast foods
1.72* [1.29, 2.29]
1.43* [1.06, 1.93]
1.14 [0.81, 1.59]
1.94* [1.31, 2.87]
1.09 [0.66, 1.79]
Would use fast food nutrition info
1.49* [1.20, 1.84]
1.15 [0.97, 1.38]
1.40* [1.09, 1.79]
1.50* [1.15, 1.96]
1.21 [0.86, 1.71]
Use nutrition facts panel on food label
1.92* [1.60, 2.30]
1.40* [1.11, 1.78]
1.64* [1.22, 2.21]
1.53* [1.11, 2.11]
0.91 [0.64, 1.31]
Use of ingredient list on food label
1.39* [1.20, 1.61]
1.33* [1.06, 1.66]
1.20 [0.99, 1.44]
0.77* [0.60, 0.98]
0.81 [0.63, 1.04]
Use of serving size on food label
1.50* [1.25, 1.80]
1.11 [0.92, 1.34]
1.34* [1.05, 1.71]
1.56* [1.16, 2.09]
1.11 [0.84, 1.46]
Use of percent daily value on food label
1.35* [1.17, 1.57]
1.02 [0.86, 1.20]
1.56* [1.30, 1.88]
0.85 [0.66, 1.09]
1.06 [0.78, 1.43]
Use of health claims on food packages
1.39* [1.18, 1.63]
1.28* [1.02, 1.60]
1.08 [0.88, 1.34]
0.96 [0.71, 1.28]
1.18 [0.85, 1.64]
The other columns present the likelihood of food label use associated with each type of weight loss activity after adjusting for all other weight loss activities. Adults who made dietary changes to lose weight had greater adjusted odds of using nutrition information to choose fast foods (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI: 1.06, 1.93), using the nutrition facts panel on food labels (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.11, 1.78), using the ingredient list on food labels (OR = 1.33; 95 % CI: 1.06, 1.66), and using health claims on food packages (OR = 1.28; 95 % CI: 1.02, 1.60). Adults who used physical activity to lose weight had greater adjusted odds of reporting they would use nutrition information at fast food restaurants (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.09, 1.79), using the nutrition facts panel on food labels (OR = 1.64; 95 % CI: 1.22, 2.21), using the serving size on food labels (OR = 1.34; 95 % CI: 1.05, 1.71), and using the percent daily value on food labels (OR = 1.56; 95 % CI: 1.30, 1.88). Adults who used commercial diets to lose weight had greater adjusted odds of reporting they saw nutrition information on fast food menus (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI: 1.01, 2,02), using nutrition information to choose fast foods (OR = 1.94; 95 % CI: 1.31, 2.87), reporting they would use nutrition information at fast food restaurants (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI: 1.15, 1.96), using the nutrition facts panel on food labels (OR = 1.53; 95 % CI: 1.11, 2.11) and using the serving size on food labels (OR = 1.56; 95 % CI: 1.16, 2.09). Adults who used commercial diets to lose weight had lower odds of using the ingredient list on food labels (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI: 0.60, 0.98). We observed no significant differences in the use of food labels among adults engaging on other types of weight loss activities.
Fast food menu label use by demographic characteristics
We additionally examined differences in the predicted probability of using fast food menu labels by gender, race/ethnicity, and body weight category (not shown but available upon request). Women were more likely than men to report using fast food menu labels (11 % vs. 7 %, p = 0.004) and that they would use fast food menu labels (76 % vs. 68 %, p < 0.001). Hispanic adults were less likely than White adults to report seeing fast food menu labels (23 % vs. 17 %, p < 0.001). We observed no significant differences in seeing, using and reporting that one would use fast food menu labels by body weight category (healthy weight, overweight, obese).
Packaged food label use by demographic characteristics
We additionally examined differences in the predicted probability of using various types of labels on packaged foods by gender and body weight category (not shown but available upon request). Women were significantly more likely than men to use nutrition facts (82 % vs. 70 %, p < 0.001), ingredient lists (67 % vs. 61 %, p < 0.001), serving size (69 % vs. 54 %, p < 0.001), percent daily value (58 % vs. 54 %, p = 0.003), and heath claims (70 % vs. 60 %, p < 0.001).
The results related to education suggest that individuals with more than a high school education were significantly more likely than those with less than a high school education to use nutrition facts (79 % vs. 73 %, p = 0.002), and to use ingredient lists (66 % vs. 61 %, p = 0.04). These same individuals were also more likely than those with a high school education to use nutrition facts (79 % vs. 72 %, p < 0.001), ingredient lists (66 % vs. 60 %, p = 0.004), and serving size information (63 % vs. 59 %, p = 0.03).
We observed no significant differences in use of packaged food labels by body weight category. Additional file 1: Tables S1 and S2 reports the full regression results for all food label use outcomes.
The goal of this study was to describe patterns in the use of fast food menu labeling and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics. We found that consumer use of fast food menu labels and packaged food labels is high with roughly a half to three-fourths of American adults reporting that they use this information. Consistent with our first study hypothesis, we found that label use is higher among adults engaging in weight loss activities. Results for our second study hypothesis were mixed; food label use was higher among some groups at lower risk for obesity (e.g., those with higher educational attainment) but not among other groups at lower risk for obesity (e.g., Whites).
These results provide modest support to the evidence base suggesting that menu labeling may positively impact consumer behavior by encouraging lower calorie [13, 14] or healthier food purchases . Although the literature related to menu labeling and consumer purchases is mixed with several systematic reviews of the impact of menu labeling on calorie purchases finding inconsistent or null results [16–19]. Our finding of higher label use among Black and Hispanic adults is notable given prior research suggesting lower label use among groups with lower socioeconomic status . However, it is consistent with our prior research suggesting that the federal calorie posting requirement in chain restaurants may be relatively more salient among Black and Hispanic sub-groups . One key reason for differing results related to race/ethnicity may be due to methodological differences in data collection; some studies observe actual purchasing behavior in response to labels whereas others ask respondents to report how they might react in response to labels.
Interestingly, we found that fast food and packaged food label use is highest among those adults using commercial diets to lose weight. This suggests that the education individuals receive in commercial programs may be more effective at encouraging attention towards food labels than self-directed efforts. These findings may be particularly relevant to the SNAP educational program (SNAP-Ed) which recently expanded its nutrition education efforts to focus on the problem of obesity. Findings from this study may also be relevant to the recent changes to Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), particularly because the low-income Americans covered by this program are more likely to be obese . The ACA gives state Medicaid programs the option to substantially expand coverage to low-income, nonelderly adults , and provides new incentives to states to cover obesity-related services .
More research is needed to better understand patterns of fast food menu labels and packaged food labels, particularly among groups at highest risk for obesity. Given our finding that most adults report they would use fast food nutrition information, regardless of whether they are trying lose weight, more research is needed to identify the most effective way of communicating this information. Past research suggests that use of absolute calorie information for restaurant items (e.g., a hamburger contains 250 cal) has relatively little influence on food selection and calorie consumption [24, 16]. This may be due to difficulties in understanding the information contained in the presentation of absolute calories . Studies have found that presenting calorie information as a physical activity equivalent (e.g., minutes of running required to burn off a particular food) is more effective than absolute calories [26–28]. This area of inquiry could inform the implementation of the federal mandatory menu labeling regulation. Future research should also focus on how effective education techniques from commercial weight loss programs can be incorporated into SNAP-Ed.
The present findings should be interpreted in light of several limitations. First, this cross sectional analysis only allows us to address associations. Second, respondents were asked to think abstractly about how they might use fast food menu labels. Given that individuals are inclined to have an optimism bias – tendency to be overly positive about the outcome of their planned actions – our results may be somewhat inflated. Third, these data were collected prior to the implementation of the ACA, so the results may differ from public perceptions once the regulations are implemented. Fourth, these data only included those adults who completed the dietary interview in the NHANES and there may be systematic differences between adults who selected to complete the dietary interview and those who did not. Fifth, because we are unable to measure community-level confounders (e.g., proximity to fast food restaurants), there may be some omitted variable bias; however we expect this would bias the results towards the null and lead to more conservative results.
To conclude, American adults who are trying to lose weight are more likely to use fast food menu labels and packaged food labels. However, a majority of adults report that they would use fast food nutrition information regardless of whether they are pursing weight loss activities which suggests that the federal menu labeling requirements for chain restaurants may be useful for promoting energy balance. More research is needed to identify the most effective mode of communicating nutrition information via fast food menu labels and packaged food labels to adults, particularly those at highest risk for obesity.
This work was supported by a grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1K01HL096409).
Human participant protection
The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Institutional Review Board.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Waxman HA. Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. In: HR 3562. 1990.Google Scholar
- Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In: Public Law 111–148. vol. HR 3590; 2010.Google Scholar
- Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):235–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Finkelstein EA, Trogdon JG, Cohen JW, Dietz W. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Aff. 2009;28(5):w822–31.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Campos S, Doxey J, Hammond D. Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(8):1496–506.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ritter A. How do drug policy makers access research evidence? Int J Drug Policy. 2009;20(1):70–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lavis JN. Research, public policymaking, and knowledge-translation processes: Canadian efforts to build bridges. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2006;26(1):37–45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hunter DJ. Relationship between evidence and policy: A case of evidence-based policy or policy-based evidence? Public Health. 2009;123(9):583–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Breck A, Cantor J, Martinez O, Elbel B. Who reports noticing and using calorie information posted on fast food restaurant menus? Appetite. 2014;81:30–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806–14.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Grunert KG, Wills JM, Fernandez-Celemin L. Nutrition knowledge, and use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels among consumers in the UK. Appetite. 2010;55(2):177–89.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kruger J, Galuska DA, Serdula MK, Jones DA. Attempting to lose weight: specific practices among U.S. adults. Am J Prev Med. 2004;26(5):402–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pulos E, Leng K. Evaluation of a voluntary menu-labeling program in full-service restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(6):1035–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bollinger B, Leslie P, Sorensen A. Calorie Posting in Chain Restaurants. Am Econ J-Econ Polic. 2011;3(1):91–128.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Auchincloss AH, Mallya GG, Leonberg BL, Ricchezza A, Glanz K, Schwarz DF. Customer Responses to Mandatory Menu Labeling at Full-Service Restaurants. Am J Prev Med. 2013;45(6):710–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swartz JJ, Braxton D, Viera AJ. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: An updated systematic review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phy. 2011;8:135.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kiszko KM, Martinez OD, Abrams C, Elbel B. The Influence of Calorie Labeling on Food Orders and Consumption: A Review of the Literature. J Community Health. 2014;39(6):1248–69.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sinclair SE, Cooper M, Mansfield ED. The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(9):1375–88. e1315.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Long MW, Tobias DK, Cradock AL, Batchelder H, Gortmaker SL. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Impact of Restaurant Menu Calorie Labeling. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(5):e11–24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bleich SN, Pollack KM. The publics’ understanding of daily caloric recommendations and their perceptions of calorie posting in chain restaurants. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:121.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Baskin ML, Ard J, Franklin F, Allison DB. Prevalence of obesity in the United States. Obes Rev. 2005;6(1):5–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sec. 2001. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act. 2010.Google Scholar
- Sec. 4106. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act. 2010.Google Scholar
- Harnack LJ, French SA, Oakes JM, Story MT, Jeffery RW, Rydell SA. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:63.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Elbel B. Consumer estimation of recommended and actual calories at fast food restaurants. Obesity. 2011;19(10):1971–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bleich SN, Herring BJ, Flagg DD, Gary-Webb TL. Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income Black adolescents after exposure to caloric information. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(2):329–35.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dowray S, Swartz JJ, Braxton D, Viera AJ. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals. Appetite. 2013;62:173–81.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bleich SN, Barry CL, Gary-Webb TL, Herring BJ. Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by providing caloric information: how black adolescents alter their purchases and whether the effects persist. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(12):2417–24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar