Abubakari AR, Lauder W, Agyemang C, Jones M, Kirk A, Bhopal RS. Prevalence and time trends in obesity among adult West African populations: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2008;9(4):297–311.
Berghofer A, Pischon T, Reinhold T, Apovian CM, Sharma AM, Willich SN. Obesity prevalence from a European perspective: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:200.
Muller O, Jahn A. Malnutrition and Maternal and Child Health. Maternal and Child Health: Global Challenges, Programs and Policies. 2009:287–310.
World Health Organisation. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Health Synthesis: A report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organisation; 2005. WHO Press. ISBN 92 4 156309 5.
Campbell T, Campbell A. Emerging disease burdens and the poor in cities of the developing world. J Urban Health. 2007;84(3 Suppl):i54–64.
Prentice AM. The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(1):93–9.
Kamadjeu RM, Edwards R, Atanga JS, Kiawi EC, Unwin N, Mbanya JC. Anthropometry measures and prevalence of obesity in the urban adult population of Cameroon: an update from the Cameroon Burden of Diabetes Baseline Survey. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:228.
Sodjinou R, Agueh V, Fayomi B, Delisle H. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:84.
Christensen DL, Eis J, Hansen AW, Larsson MW, Mwaniki DL, Kilonzo B, et al. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations: impact of ethnicity and urbanization. Ann Hum Biol. 2008;35(2):232–49.
Gomes A, Damasceno A, Azevedo A, Prista A, Silva-Matos C, Saranga S, et al. Body mass index and waist circumference in Mozambique: urban/rural gap during epidemiological transition. Obes Rev. 2010;11(9):627–34.
Msyamboza KP, Kathyola D, Dzowela T. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey. Pan Afr Med J. 2013;15:108.
Sola AO, Steven AO, Kayode JA, Olayinka AO. Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults Nigerians living in rural and urban communities of Benue State. Ann Afr Med. 2011;10(2):139–43.
Adebayo RA, Balogun MO, Adedoyin RA, Obashoro-John OA, Bisiriyu LA, Abiodun OO. Prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity in three rural communities in southwest Nigeria. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:153–8.
Maher D, Waswa L, Baisley K, Karabarinde A, Unwin N, Grosskurth H. Distribution of hyperglycaemia and related cardiovascular disease risk factors in low-income countries: a cross-sectional population-based survey in rural Uganda. Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40(1):160–71.
Mayega RW, Makumbi F, Rutebemberwa E, Peterson S, Ostenson CG, Tomson G, et al. Modifiable socio-behavioural factors associated with overweight and hypertension among persons aged 35 to 60 years in eastern Uganda. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47632.
Agyemang C, Owusu-Dabo E, de Jonge A, Martins D, Ogedegbe G, Stronks K. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in The Netherlands: how do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana? Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(7):909–16.
Assah FK, Ekelund U, Brage S, Corder K, Wright A, Mbanya JC, et al. Predicting physical activity energy expenditure using accelerometry in adults from sub-Sahara Africa. Obesity. 2009;17(8):1588–95.
WHO. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Italy 2011. Report No.: ISBN 978 92 4 156422 9
Kozak AT, Daviglus ML, Chan C, Kiefe CI, Jacobs Jr DR, Liu K. Relationship of body mass index in young adulthood and health-related quality of life two decades later: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35(1):134–41. doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.120. Manuscript available in PMC 2013 December 30.
Sairenchi T, Iso H, Irie F, Fukasawa N, Ota H, Muto T. Underweight as a predictor of diabetes in older adults: a large cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(3):583–4.
Uganda Bureau of Statistics, and ICF International Inc. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Kampala, Uganda 2012.
Uganda Bureau of Statistics, and Macro International Inc. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2006. Calverton, Maryland: UBOS and Macro International Inc; 2007.
Ball K, Timperio AF, Crawford DA. Understanding environmental influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors: where should we look and what should we count? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006;3:33.
Casey AA, Elliott M, Glanz K, Haire-Joshu D, Lovegreen SL, Saelens BE, et al. Impact of the food environment and physical activity environment on behaviors and weight status in rural U.S. communities. Prev Med. 2008;47(6):600–4.
Oyeyemi AL, Adegoke BO, Oyeyemi AY, Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Sallis JF. Environmental factors associated with overweight among adults in Nigeria. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:32.
Abubakari AR, Bhopal RS. Systematic review on the prevalence of diabetes, overweight/obesity and physical inactivity in Ghanaians and Nigerians. Public Health. 2008;122(2):173–82.
Scott A, Ejikeme CS, Clottey EN, Thomas JG. Obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: development of an ecological theoretical framework. Health Promot Int. 2013;28(1):4–16.
Bennett S, Woods T, Liyanage WM, Smith DL. A simplified general method for cluster-sample surveys of health in developing countries. World Health Stat Q. 1991;44(3):98–106.
www.igangamayuge-hdss.mak.ac.ug/index.php/en/homepage. [Date accessed 15 July 2013].
Ulijaszek SJ, Kerr DA. Anthropometric measurement error and the assessment of nutritional status. Br J Nutr. 1999;82(3):165–77.
WHO. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1995.
WHO. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 2000. Contract No.: 894.
WHO. Appropriate body mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363(9403):157–63.
Vyas S, Kumaranayake L. Constructing socio-economic status indices: how to use principal components analysis. Health Policy Plan. 2006;21(6):459–68.
von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Prev Med. 2007;45(4):247–51.
Gartner A, Maire B, Traissac P, Massamba JP, Kameli Y, Keraudren V, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of the body mass index to assess low percent body fat in African women. Am J Hum Biol. 2000;12(1):25–31.
Amoah AG. Sociodemographic variations in obesity among Ghanaian adults. Public Health Nutr. 2003;6(8):751–7.
Bakari AG, Onyemelukwe C, Sani BG, Aliyu S, Hassan SS, Aliyu TM. Relationship between casual blood sugar and body mass index in a suburban northern Nigerian population: a short communication. Niger J Med. 2007;16(1):77–8.
Atek M, Traissac P, El Ati J, Laid Y, Aounallah-Skhiri H, Eymard-Duvernay S, et al. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e75640.
Letamo G. The prevalence of, and factors associated with, overweight and obesity in Botswana. J Biosoc Sci. 2011;43(1):75–84.
Malaza A, Mossong J, Barnighausen T, Newell ML. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47761.
Adedoyin RA, Mbada CE, Bisiriyu LA, Adebayo RA, Balogun MO, Akintomide AO. Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels and the risk of hypertension in Nigerian adults. Int J Gen Med. 2008;1:33–40.
Rudatsikira E, Muula AS, Mulenga D, Siziya S. Prevalence and correlates of obesity among Lusaka residents, Zambia: a population-based survey. Int Arch Med. 2012;5(1):14.
Adeyemo A, Luke A, Cooper R, Wu X, Tayo B, Zhu X, et al. A genome-wide scan for body mass index among Nigerian families. Obes Res. 2003;11(2):266–73.
Shayo GA, Mugusi FM. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:365.
Kruger A, Wissing MP, Towers GW, Doak CM. Sex differences independent of other psycho-sociodemographic factors as a predictor of body mass index in black South African adults. J Health Popul Nutr. 2012;30(1):56–65.
Elmadfa I, Freisling H. Nutritional status in Europe: methods and results. Nutr Rev. 2009;67 Suppl 1:S130–4.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA. 2006;295(13):1549–55.
Hopman WM, Leroux C, Berger C, Joseph L, Barr SI, Prior JC, et al. Changes in body mass index in Canadians over a five-year period: results of a prospective, population-based study. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:150.
van der Sande MA, Ceesay SM, Milligan PJ, Nyan OA, Banya WA, Prentice A, et al. Obesity and undernutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban Gambian communities. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(10):1641–4.
Mayega RW, Etajak S, Rutebemberwa E, Tomson G, Kiguli J. ‘Change means sacrificing a good life’: perceptions about severity of type 2 diabetes and preventive lifestyles among people afflicted or at high risk of type 2 diabetes in Iganga Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:864.
Holdsworth M, Gartner A, Landais E, Maire B, Delpeuch F. Perceptions of healthy and desirable body size in urban Senegalese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(12):1561–8.
Rguibi M, Belahsen R. Body size preferences and sociocultural influences on attitudes towards obesity among Moroccan Sahraoui women. Body Image. 2006;3(4):395–400.
Stern R, Puoane T, Tsolekile L. An exploration into the determinants of noncommunicable diseases among rural-to-urban migrants in periurban South Africa. Prev Chronic Dis. 2010;7(6):A131.
Hendriks ME, Wit FW, Roos MT, Brewster LM, Akande TM, de Beer IH, et al. Hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32638.
Bourne LT, Lambert EV, Steyn K. Where does the black population of South Africa stand on the nutrition transition? Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(1A):157–62.
Puoane T, Steyn K, Bradshaw D, Laubscher R, Fourie J, Lambert V, et al. Obesity in South Africa: the South African demographic and health survey. Obes Res. 2002;10(10):1038–48.
Msamati BC, Igbigbi PS. Anthropometric profile of urban adult black Malawians. East Afr Med J. 2000;77(7):364–8.
Njelekela M, Kuga S, Nara Y, Ntogwisangu J, Masesa Z, Mashalla Y, et al. Prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia in middle-aged men and women in Tanzania, Africa: relationship with resting energy expenditure and dietary factors. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2002;48(5):352–8.
Siervo M, Grey P, Nyan OA, Prentice AM. Urbanization and obesity in The Gambia: a country in the early stages of the demographic transition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(4):455–63.
Sobngwi E, Mbanya JC, Unwin NC, Porcher R, Kengne AP, Fezeu L, et al. Exposure over the life course to an urban environment and its relation with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in rural and urban Cameroon. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33(4):769–76.
Mbochi RW, Kuria E, Kimiywe J, Ochola S, Steyn NP. Predictors of overweight and obesity in adult women in Nairobi Province, Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:823.
Mazengo MC, Simell O, Lukmanji Z, Shirima R, Karvetti RL. Food consumption in rural and urban Tanzania. Acta Trop. 1997;68(3):313–26.
Neuman M, Finlay JE, Davey Smith G, Subramanian SV. The poor stay thinner: stable socioeconomic gradients in BMI among women in lower- and middle-income countries. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(5):1348–57.
Karmon SL, Moore RD, Dobs AS, Keruly J, Barnett S, Cofrancesco Jr J. Body shape and composition in HIV-infected women: an urban cohort. HIV Med. 2005;6(4):245–52.
Uganda Ministry of Health, ICF International, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Agency for International Development, WHO Uganda. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 20112012 August 2012.