FAO, WFP, IFAD. The state of food insecurity in the World 2012. In: Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. Rome: FAO; 2012.
Cook JT, Frank DA. Food security, poverty, and human development in the United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1136(1):193–209. doi:10.1196/annals.1425.001.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Sustainable development knowledge platform. 2015. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300. Accessed 13 October 2015.
Cook JT, Frank DA, Berkowitz C, Black MM, Casey PH, Cutts DB, et al. Food insecurity is associated with adverse health outcomes among human infants and toddlers. J Nutr. 2004;134(6):1432–8.
Grantham-McGregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B, et al. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet. 2007;369(9555):60–70. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60032-4.
Ahmed T, Mahfuz M, Ireen S, Shasmsir AM, Rahman S, Islam MM, et al. Nutrition of children and womein in Bangladesh: trends and directions for the future. J Popul Nutr. 2012;30(1):1–11.
Pinstrup-Andersen P, Babinard J. Globalisation and human nutrition: opportunities and risks for poor in developing countries. Afr J Food Nutr Sci. 2001;1:9–18.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Africa human development report 2012: towards a food Secure future. Popul Dev Rev. 2013;39(1):172–3. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00584.x.
United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization, The World Bank. UNICEF-WHO-World Bank joint child malnutrition estimates. UNICEF, New York; WHO, Geneva; The World Bank, Washington, DC; 2012.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya demographic and health surveys, 2014: key indicators. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS)2015; 2015.
Fotso JC, Madise N, Baschieri A, Cleland J, Zulu E, Mutua MK, et al. Child growth in urban deprived settings: does household poverty status matter? At which stage of child development? Health Place. 2012;18(2):375–84. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.12.003.
Engle P, Menon P, Haddad L. Care and nutrition: concepts and measurement. World Dev. 1999;27(8):1309–37.
Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet. 2008;371(9608):243–60.
Casey PH, Simpson PM, Gossett JM, Bogle ML, Champagne CM, Connell C, et al. The association of child and household food Insecurity with childhood overweight status. Pediatrics. 2006;118(5):e1406–13. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0097.
Martorell R. The nature of child malnutrition and its long-term implications. Food Nutr Bull. 1999;20(3):288–92.
Jyoti DF, Frangillo EA, Jones SJ. Food insecurity affects school children’s academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. J Nutr. 2005;135:2831–9.
Prado E, Dewey K. Insight nutrition and brain development in early life, AT&T Technical Brief, vol. 4. 2012.
Thompson R, Nelson C. Developmental science and the media: early brain development. Am Psychol Assoc. 2001;56:5–15.
Alaimo K, Olson C, Frangillo EA, Briefel R. Food insufficiency, poverty, and health in U.S. pre-school and school-age children. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:781–6.
Vozoris NT, Tarasuk VS. Household food insufficiency is associated with poorer health. J Nutr. 2003;133(1):120–6.
Psaki S, Bhutta ZA, Ahmed T, Ahmed S, Bessong P, Islam M, et al. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study. Popul Health Metrics. 2012;10(1):24. doi:10.1186/1478-7954-10-24.
Dubois L, Farmer A, Girard M, Porcherie M. Family food insufficiency is related to overweight among preschoolers’. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:1503–16.
Dubois L, Damion F, Burnier D, Tatone-Tokuda F, Girard M, Gordon-Strachan G, et al. Household food insecurity and childhood overweight in Jamaica and Québec: a gender-based analysis. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:119.
Osei A, Pandey P, Spiro D, Nielson J, Shrestha R, Talukder Z, et al. Household food insecurity and nutritional status of children aged 6 to 23 months in Kailali district of Nepal. Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31:4.
Beguy D, Elung’ata P, Mberu B, Oduor C, Wamukoya M, Nganyi B, et al. HDSS profile: the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). Int J Epidemiol. 2015. doi:10.1093/ije/dyu251.
Zere E, McIntyre D. Inequiteis in under-five child malnutrion in South Africa. Int J Equity Health. 2003;2:7.
UNICEF. The state of the world’s children 1998. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.
World Food Summit. Rome declaration on world food security. 1996. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.HTM. Accessed on 13 October 2013.
Radimer KL, Olson C, Campell CC. Development of indicators to access hunger. J Nutr. 1990;120(11):1544–8.
Faye O, Baschieri A, Falkingham J, Muindi K. Hunger and food insecurity in Nairobi’s slums: an assessment using IRT models. J Urban Health. 2011;88 Suppl 2:S235–54.
Tavakol M, Dennick R. Making sence of Cronbach’s alpha. Int J Med Educ. 2011;2:23–55. doi:10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd.
Filmer D, Pritchett LH. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data – or tears: an application to educational enrolments in states of India. Demography. 2001;38(1):115–32.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), ICF Macro. Kenya demographic and health survey 2008–09. Calverton: KNBS and ICF Macro; 2010.
Ali Naser I, Jalil R, Wan Muda WM, Wan Nik WS, Mohd Shariff Z, Abdullah MR. Association between household food insecurity and nutritional outcomes among children in Northeastern of Peninsular Malaysia. Nutr Res Pract. 2014;8(3):304–11. doi:10.4162/nrp.2014.8.3.304.
Dammann K, Smith C. Food-related attitudes and behaviors at home, school, and restaurants: perspectives from racially diverse, urban, low-income 9- to 13-year-old children in Minnesota. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010;42(6):389–97.
Kimani-Murage EW, Holding PA, Fotso JC, Ezeh AC, Madise N, Kahurani EN, et al. Food security and nutritional outcomes among urban poor orphans in Nairobi, Kenya. J Urban Health. 2011;88 Suppl 2:282–97. doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9491-z.
Fotso JC. Urban–rural differentials in child malnutrition: trends and socioeconomic correlates in sub-Saharan Africa. Health Place. 2007;13:205–23. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.01.004.
Fotso JC. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas. Int J Equity Health. 2006;5:9.
Kimani-Murage EW, Schofield L, Wekesah F, Mohamed S, Mberu B, Ettarh R, et al. Vulnerability to food insecurity in urban slums: experiences from Nairobi, Kenya. J Urban Health. 2014. doi:10.1007/s11524-014-9894-3.
Saaka M, Osman SM. Does household food insecurity affect the nutritional status of preschool children aged 6–36 Months? Int J Popul Res. 2013;2013:12. doi:10.1155/2013/304169.
Hannum E, Liu J, Frongillo EA. Poverty, food insecurity and nutritional deprivation in rural China: implications for children’s literacy achievement. Int J Educ Dev. 2014;34:90–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2012.07.003.
Reis M. Food insecurity and the relationship between household income and children’s health and nutrition in Brazil. Health Econ. 2012;21(4):405–27. doi:10.1002/hec.1722.
Dinsa GD, Goryakin Y, Fumagalli E, Suhrcke M. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2012;13(11):1067–79. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01017.x.
Townsend MS, Peerson J, Love B, Achterberg C, Murphy SP. Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women. J Nutr. 2001;131(6):1738–45.
Bellera CA, MacGrogan G, Debled M, Lara CT, Brouste V, Mathoulin-Pélissier S. Variables with time-varying effects and the Cox model: some statistical concepts illustrated with a prognostic factor study in breast cancer. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2010;10:20. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-20.
Mclntyre L. Food security: More than a determinant of health. Policy Options. 2003;24(3):46–51.
Chilton M, Rose D. A rights-based approach to food insecurity in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(7):1203–11. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.130229.
MacAuslan I, Schofield L. Evaluation of Concern Kenya’s Korogocho emergency and food security cash transfer initiative. Nairobi: Concern Worldwide and Oxford Policy Management; 2011.
African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC). Population and health dynamics in Nairobi’s informal settlements: report of the Nairobi cross-sectional slums survey (NCSS) 2012. Nairobi: APHRC; 2014.