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Table 2 Bivariate associations: stages of change to quit smoking by socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic position, health status and psychological wellbeing (N = 735)

From: Stages of change of the readiness to quit smoking among a random sample of minority Arab -male smokers in Israel

  Pre-contemplation Contemplation Preparation P-value⃰
N = 454 N = 175 N = 106
n % n % n %  
Age        0.058
 18-25 136 66.67 32 15.69 36 17.65  
 26-35 107 60.11 47 26.40 24 13.48 X2= 12.18
 36-45 93 62.42 37 24.83 19 12.75 DF = 6
 46-64 116 57.42 59 29.20 27 13.37
Marital status        0.039
 Unmarried 177 65.80 50 18.60 42 15.60 X2= 6.46
 Married 276 59.36 125 26.88 64 13.76 DF = 2
Socio-economic position
Education level        0.023
 Less than high school 101 61.97 44 26.99 18 11.04 X2= 11.33
 High school 282 63.66 102 23.02 59 13.32 DF = 4
 More than high school 66 54.10 27 22.13 29 23.77
Primary source of income        0.263
 Social allowance/ other 77 68.14 25 22.12 11 9.74 X2= 2.65
 Work 360 61.33 139 23.68 88 14.99 DF = 2
Employment status        0.545
 Unemployed or part time 114 58.46 49 25.13 32 16.41 X2= 1.20
 Full time employment 335 62.62 126 23.55 74 13.83 DF = 2
Health status
Chronic disease        
 No 337 66.34 1076 29.96 64 18.50 <0.001
 Yes 117 51.54 8 21.06 42 12.60 X2= 14.56
        DF = 2
Anxietya 453 15.92 (4.40) 175 15.56 (4.21) 105 17.25 (4.21) <0.001b
KW = 14.17
DF = 2
Psychosocial factors
Stressful life eventsa 454 0.76 (1.21) 175 0.81 (1.45) 106 0.88 (1.23) 0.440b
KW = 1.63
DF = 2
Social support a 454 7.04 (4.35) 174 6.65 (4.62) 106 7.80 (4.15) 0.047b
KW = 6.11
DF = 2
  1. P value indicates the differences in the distribution of the variable of interest across the 3 levels of the stage of change
  2. aFor continuous variables, mean and standard deviation are presented
  3. bKruskal Wallis (KW) for these associations otherwise X2 test