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Table 4 Summary estimates (95% CIs) for health outcomes meta-analyses

From: The World Health Organization’s Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome Intervention focus Number of studies Intervention participants Control participants Mean difference 95% CI I2 τ
BMI Nutrition only 1 479 364 −0.04 −0.28, 0.20 n/a n/a
Physical Activity only 3 772 658 −0.38 −0.73, −0.03* 86% 0.08
Physical Activity & Nutrition 9 6520 7108 −0.11 −0.24, 0.02 84% 0.03
zBMI Nutrition only 1 479 364 −0.01 −0.09, 0.07 n/a n/a
Physical Activity only 1 102 94 −0.47 −0.69, −0.25* n/a n/a
Physical Activity & Nutrition 7 5672 5512 0 −0.04, 0.03 41% 0
  Standardised mean diff. 95% CI I 2 Tau
Physical Activity Nutrition only 1 416 335 0.02 −0.02, 0.06 n/a n/a
Physical Activity only 2 671 563 0.17 −0.16, 0.50 93% 0.05
Physical Activity & Nutrition 6 3244 2946 0.14 0.03, 0.26* 66% 0.01
Physical Fitness Physical Activity only 2 396 298 0.35 −0.20, 0.90 95% 0.15
Physical Activity & Nutrition 3 2059 2171 0.12 0.04, 0.20* 0% 0
Fat intake Nutrition only 7 2205 2011 −0.08 −0.21, 0.05 68% 0.02
Physical Activity & Nutrition 10 6498 5962 −0.04 −0.20, 0.12 95% 0.06
Fruit & Vegetable intake Nutrition only 9 3293 2917 0.15 0.02, 0.29* 83% 0.03
Physical Activity & Nutrition 4 3507 3105 0.04 −0.18, 0.26 79% 0.04
Depression Emotional well-being 2 3252 2847 0.06 −0.00, 0.13 0% 0
Anti-bullying 1 1106 1118 0 −0.08, 0.08 n/a n/a
  Odds ratio 95% CI I 2 Tau
Tobacco use Tobacco only 3 2244 2503 0.77 0.64, 0.93* 16% 0
Multiple Risk Behaviour 5 5503 4489 0.84 0.76, 0.93* 0% 0
Emotional well-being 1 315 315 0.79 0.59, 1.06 n/a n/a
Alcohol only 1 1005 896 0.74 0.61, 0.90* n/a n/a
Alcohol use Alcohol only 2 3506 3975 0.72 0.34, 1.52 82% 0.25
Multiple Risk Behaviour 4 4496 3644 0.75 0.55, 1.02 78% 0.07
Emotional well-being 1 809 810 1.13 0.76, 1.67 n/a n/a
Substance use Multiple Risk Behaviour 3 3804 3016 0.57 0.29, 1.14 71% 0.26
Alcohol only 2 3506 3975 0.94 0.78, 1.12 0% 0
Emotional well-being 1 233 233 0.81 0.57, 1.15 n/a n/a
Violence Violence prevention 1 929 1161 1.13 0.61, 2.07 n/a n/a
Multiple Risk Behaviour 3 3806 3014 0.5 0.23, 1.09 93% 0.42
Being bullied Anti-bullying 6 13993 12263 0.83 0.72, 0.96* 61% 0.02
Multiple Risk Behaviour 1 2635 2108 0.97 0.90, 1.05 n/a n/a
Emotional well-being 1 481 482 0.88 0.68, 1.13 n/a n/a
Bullying others Anti-bullying 6 13949 12227 0.9 0.78, 1.04 67% 0.02
Multiple Risk Behaviour 1 195 168 0.49 0.34, 0.71* n/a n/a
  1. *95% confidence intervals do not include the null.
  2. BMI = Body Mass Index; zBMI = Body Mass Index, standardised for age and gender.