Lopez A, Mathers C, Ezzati M, Jamison D, Murray C: Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. 2006, New York: Oxford University Press
WHO: Preventing chronic diseases, a vital investment. 2005, Geneva: World Health Organization
Asfaw A: The effects of obesity on doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases in Africa: empirical results from Senegal and South Africa. J Public Health Policy. 2006, 27 (3): 250-264. 10.1057/palgrave.jphp.3200089.
Cappuccio FP, Kerry SM, Adeyemo A, Luke A, Amoah AG, Bovet P, Connor MD, Forrester T, Gervasoni JP, Kaki GK, et al: Body size and blood pressure: an analysis of Africans and the African diaspora. Epidemiology. 2008, 19 (1): 38-46. 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31815c4d2c.
Campbell T, Campbell A: Emerging disease burdens and the poor in cities of the developing world. J Urban Health. 2007, 84 (3 Suppl): i54-64. 10.1007/s11524-007-9181-7.
Abubakari AR, Lauder W, Agyemang C, Jones M, Kirk A, Bhopal RS: Prevalence and time trends in obesity among adult West African populations: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2008, 9 (4): 297-311. 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00462.x.
Villamor E, Msamanga G, Urassa W, Petraro P, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Fawzi WW: Trends in obesity, underweight, and wasting among women attending prenatal clinics in urban Tanzania, 1995-2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006, 83 (6): 1387-1394.
Martorell R, Khan LK, Hughes ML, Grummer-Strawn LM: Obesity in women from developing countries. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000, 54 (3): 247-252. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600931.
Kamadjeu RM, Edwards R, Atanga JS, Kiawi EC, Unwin N, Mbanya JC: Anthropometry measures and prevalence of obesity in the urban adult population of Cameroon: an update from the Cameroon Burden of Diabetes Baseline Survey. BMC Public Health. 2006, 6: 228-10.1186/1471-2458-6-228.
Sodjinou R, Agueh V, Fayomi B, Delisle H: Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns. BMC Public Health. 2008, 8: 84-10.1186/1471-2458-8-84.
WHO: Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. 2004, Geneva: World Health Organization
Amoah AG: Sociodemographic variations in obesity among Ghanaian adults. Public Health Nutr. 2003, 6 (8): 751-757. 10.1079/PHN2003506.
Biritwum R, Gyapong J, Mensah G: The epidemiology of obesity in ghana. Ghana Med J. 2005, 39 (3): 82-85.
Fezeu L, Minkoulou E, Balkau B, Kengne AP, Awah P, Unwin N, Alberti GK, Mbanya JC: Association between socioeconomic status and adiposity in urban Cameroon. Int J Epidemiol. 2006, 35 (1): 105-111. 10.1093/ije/dyi214.
Forrest KY, Bunker CH, Kriska AM, Ukoli FA, Huston SL, Markovic N: Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in a developing population. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001, 33 (9): 1598-1604. 10.1097/00005768-200109000-00025.
Bourne LT, Lambert EV, Steyn K: Where does the black population of South Africa stand on the nutrition transition?. Public Health Nutr. 2002, 5 (1A): 157-162. 10.1079/PHN2001288.
Sundquist K, Malmstrom M, Johansson SE: Neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of coronary heart disease: a multilevel study of 2.6 million women and men in Sweden. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004, 58 (1): 71-77. 10.1136/jech.58.1.71.
Lopez RP: Neighborhood risk factors for obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007, 15 (8): 2111-2119. 10.1038/oby.2007.251.
Christensen DL, Eis J, Hansen AW, Larsson MW, Mwaniki DL, Kilonzo B, Tetens I, Boit MK, Kaduka L, Borch-Johnsen K, et al: Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations: impact of ethnicity and urbanization. Ann Hum Biol. 2008, 35 (2): 232-249. 10.1080/03014460801949870.
Kuga S, Njelekela M, Noguchi T, Kanda T, Yamori M, Sato T, Miki T, Ikeda K, Nara Y, Mtabaji J: Prevalence of overweight and hypertension in Tanzania: special emphasis on resting energy expenditure and leptin. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl. 2002, S23-26. 10.1046/j.1440-1681.29.s4.3.x. 29
Durazo-Arvizu RA, Luke A, Cooper RS, Cao G, Dugas L, Adeyemo A, Boyne M, Forrester T: Rapid increases in obesity in Jamaica, compared to Nigeria and the United States. BMC Public Health. 2008, 8: 133-10.1186/1471-2458-8-133.
United Nations: World Urbanization Prospectus: The 2005 Revision. 2006, New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division
Cohen B: Urban growth in developing countries: A review of current trends and a caution regarding existing forecast. World Development. 2004, 32: 23-51. 10.1016/j.worlddev.2003.04.008.
Njelekela M, Sato T, Nara Y, Miki T, Kuga S, Noguchi T, Kanda T, Yamori M, Ntogwisangu J, Masesa Z, et al: Nutritional variation and cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania--rural-urban difference. S Afr Med J. 2003, 93 (4): 295-299.
Njelekela M, Kuga S, Nara Y, Ntogwisangu J, Masesa Z, Mashalla Y, Ikeda K, Mtabaji J, Yamori Y, Tsuda K: Prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia in middle-aged men and women in Tanzania, Africa: relationship with resting energy expenditure and dietary factors. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002, 48 (5): 352-358.
Mathe S, Matovu HL, Mossop RT: Nutritional status of an urban community in Zimbabwe. Cent Afr J Med. 1985, 31 (3): 59-62.
Sobngwi E, Mbanya JC, Unwin NC, Porcher R, Kengne AP, Fezeu L, Minkoulou EM, Tournoux C, Gautier JF, Aspray TJ, et al: Exposure over the life course to an urban environment and its relation with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in rural and urban Cameroon. Int J Epidemiol. 2004, 33 (4): 769-776. 10.1093/ije/dyh044.
Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P: The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004, 28 (Suppl 3): S2-9. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802804.
Popkin BM: The nutrition transition: an overview of world patterns of change. Nutr Rev. 2004, 62 (7 Pt 2): S140-143. 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00084.x.
Nyaruhucha CN, Achen JH, Msuya JM, Shayo NB, Kulwa KB: Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age groups in educational institutions in Morogoro, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2003, 80 (2): 68-72.
Ezzati M, Hoorn Vander S, Lawes CM, Leach R, James WP, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJ: Rethinking the "diseases of affluence" paradigm: global patterns of nutritional risks in relation to economic development. PLoS Med. 2005, 2 (5): e133-10.1371/journal.pmed.0020133.
Global Database on Body Mass Index: an interactive surveillance tool for monitoring nutrition transition. [http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp]
Filmer D, Pritchett LH: Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data--or tears: an application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography. 2001, 38 (1): 115-132.
Peterson B, Harrell F: Partial Proportional Odds Models for Ordinal Response Variables. Applied Statistics. 1990, 39 (2): 205-217. 10.2307/2347760.
Ananth CV, Kleinbaum DG: Regression models for ordinal responses: a review of methods and applications. Int J Epidemiol. 1997, 26 (6): 1323-1333. 10.1093/ije/26.6.1323.
Williams R: Generalized Ordered Logit/Partial Proportional Odds Models for Ordinal Dependent Variables. The Stata Journal. 2006, 6 (1): 58-82.
UNFPA: The State of the World Population 1996. Changing Places: Population, Development and the Urban Poor. 1996, New York: United Nations
Fall CHD: Non-industrialised countries and affluence. British Medical Bulletin. 60: 30-50.
Agyemang C, Owusu-Dabo E, de Jonge A, Martins D, Ogedegbe G, Stronks K: Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in The Netherlands: how do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?. Public Health Nutr. 2008, 1-8.
Siervo M, Grey P, Nyan OA, Prentice AM: A pilot study on body image, attractiveness and body size in Gambians living in an urban community. Eat Weight Disord. 2006, 11 (2): 100-109.
Siervo M, Grey P, Nyan OA, Prentice AM: Urbanization and obesity in The Gambia: a country in the early stages of the demographic transition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006, 60 (4): 455-463. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602337.
Rguibi M, Belahsen R: Overweight and obesity among urban Sahraoui women of South Morocco. Ethn Dis. 2004, 14 (4): 542-547.
Heliovaara M, Aromaa A: Parity and obesity. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1981, 35 (3): 197-199. 10.1136/jech.35.3.197.
Tacoli C: Rural-urban interactions: a guide to the literature. Environment and Urbanization. 1998, 10 (1): 147-166. 10.1177/095624789801000105.
United Nations: Socioeconomic differentials in child mortality in developing countries. 1985, New York: United Nations: Department of International Economic and Social Affairs
UN: United Nations Millennium Declaration. Fifty-fifth Session of the United Nations General Assembly. 2000, New York: United Nations