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Table 2 Mean 25(OH)D according to sunbathing habits.

From: Seasonal variance of 25-(OH) vitamin D in the general population of Estonia, a Northern European country

  25(OH)D in summer (nmol/L) 25(OH)D in winter (nmol/L)
  N* Mean SD N* Mean SD
Avoids sun 36 44.7 1.9 40 33.5 1.9
Arms/face 66 54.7 2.0 78 40.6 1.5
Whole body 206 63.1 1.3 240 46.3 1.0
P value (ANOVA) P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001
Arms/face vs. avoids sun 10.1 (1.8–18.3); p = 0.01 7.0 (0.5–13.6); p = 0.03
Whole body vs. avoids sun 18.4 (11.2–25.6); p < 0.001 12.8 (7.1–18.6); p < 0.001
Arms/face vs. whole body 8.4 (2.7–14.0); p = 0.001 5.8 (1.4–10.1); p = 0.006
  1. * 10 subjects did not provide their sun-bathing habits data
  2. † Post-hoc analysis using Tukey test; presented as differences in mean (95% CI); p value