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Table 2 Methodologies' modifications taking into account prevalence-based analysis in cohort studies as base method

From: Methodologies used to estimate tobacco-attributable mortality: a review

  Peto's et al method Prevalence-based analysis in case-control studies Basic method
Variation respect prevalence-based analysis in cohort studies Problem: Smoking prevalence is a poor proxy for cumulative hazards of smoking.
Solution: Defining SIR (Smoking impact ratio or Synthetic prevalence) authors avoid prevalence limitations.
Problem: RR extrapolation to different populations than the original is inconsistent.
Solution: Designing a case-control study OR could be assessed.
Problem: RR extrapolation to different populations than the original is inconsistent.
Solution: RR can be estimated applying a calculation procedure.
Calculation procedure S I R = C L C N L C S L C * N L C * MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGaem4uamLaemysaKKaemOuaiLaeyypa0tcfa4aaSaaaeaacqWGdbWqdaWgaaqaaiabdYeamjabdoeadbqabaGaeyOeI0IaemOta40aaSbaaeaacqWGmbatcqWGdbWqaeqaaaqaaiabdofatnaaDaaabaGaemitaWKaem4qameabaGaeiOkaOcaaiabgkHiTiabd6eaonaaDaaabaGaemitaWKaem4qameabaGaeiOkaOcaaaaaaaa@424E@
where CLC, NLC, S*LC, N*LC are age-sex specific lung cancer mortality rates for smokers and never smokers in the study and in the reference population (*).
O R = a 1 b 0 a 0 b 1 R R = a 1 ( 1 p 1 ) a 0 p 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGaem4ta8KaemOuaiLaeyypa0tcfa4aaSaaaeaacqWGHbqydaWgaaqaaiabigdaXaqabaGaemOyai2aaSbaaeaacqaIWaamaeqaaaqaaiabdggaHnaaBaaabaGaeGimaadabeaacqWGIbGydaWgaaqaaiabigdaXaqabaaaaOGaemOuaiLaemOuaiLaeyypa0tcfa4aaSaaaeaacqWGHbqydaWgaaqaaiabigdaXaqabaGaeiikaGIaeGymaeJaeyOeI0IaemiCaa3aaSbaaeaacqaIXaqmaeqaaiabcMcaPaqaaiabdggaHnaaBaaabaGaeGimaadabeaacqWGWbaCdaWgaaqaaiabigdaXaqabaaaaaaa@4A7C@
where
p1 is the prevalence between the cases
a1 is exposed cases
b1 is exposed controls
a0 is non exposed cases
b0 is non exposed controls
Packs-function in smokers
RRs = 1 + ac((t - 5))-t0)
Multistage-function in smokers
RRs = 1 + [(t - 5)4.5 + ac(1 + 2ac)((t - 5)-t0)4.5 + 2ac((t - 5)4.5-t0 4.5)]/(t - 5)4.5
Where a is a constant, c is the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per year, t is the current age and t 0 is age at start of smoking.
In former smokers t1 replaces (t - 5) and t1 is age at stop smoking.