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Table 5 Summary of SES – CVD life course studies using a cumulative SES design

From: Evaluating the evidence for models of life course socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review

1st Author, year & reference number
Study name
Cumulative SES measure(s) Variables adjusted for other than age CVD risk factor(s) / outcomes measured
Davey-Smith 1997 [82]
Collaborative Study
Sum of # of times at mnl vs. non-mnl SES using father's, own first, & own current occup class BMI, DBP, FEV1, cholesterol, smoking, AP, ischemia, more CVD, mortality, AP, smoking, BMI, DBP, cholesterol, more
Heslop 2001 [81]
Collaborative Study
Sum of # of times at mnl vs. non-mnl SES using father's, own first, & own current class DBP, BMI, FEV1, cholesterol, activity, smoking, alcohol CVD mortality, DBP, BMI, FEV1, exercise, smoking, alcohol, more
Wamala 2001 [45]
Stockholm Study
Sum of # of instances (0–6) of SES disadvantage (large family, born last, low edu, blue-collar/ housewife, economic hardship) Height, HDL, HTN, marriage, fibrinogen, obesity, smoking, more Cases: CHD event (acute MI, unstable/ recurrent AP)
Davey-Smith 2002 [52]
Collaborative Study
Sum of # of risks (0–6): Father mnl SES, left edu at < 15 years, current mnl SES, smoking, high alcohol, high deprivation area None CVD mortality
Lawlor 2002 [68]
British Women's Heart Study
Cross-classification of father's longest occup and current occup (RG, mnl/non-mnl) None Insulin resistance, HTN, smoking, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, BMI, more
Claussen 2003 [53]
Oslo Mortality Study
Early life: Index of housing conditions (scored 0–7) Adulthood: standardized income (7 groups) None CVD mortality
Pensola 2003 [79]
Finnish census cohort
Sum of # of times in mnl vs. non-mnl class, by father's occup & own occup at 30–34 None CVD mortality
  1. AP = Angina pectoris; BMI = Body mass index; CHD = Coronary heart disease; DBP = Diastolic blood pressure; Edu = Education; FEV1 = Forced expiratory volume in 1 second; HTN = Hypertension; MI = Myocardial infarction; Mnl = Manual occupational class; Non-mnl = Non-manual occupational class; Occup = Occupation; RG = Registrar General's social class categories.