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Table 4 Summary of SES – CVD life course studies using a social trajectory design

From: Evaluating the evidence for models of life course socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review

1st Author, year & reference number
Study name
SES measures Variables adjusted for other than age CVD risk factor(s) / outcomes measured
Kaplan 1971 [76]
Evans County Heart Study
Early-life: father's occup (7 groups); Early Adult & Adult: occup & social class (5 classes) None MI, chronic IHD, AP, sudden death
Gillum 1978 [77]
Harvard Alumni Cohort
Early-life: by parental occup (blue/white collar); Adult: assumed to be at least middle class A confounder summarizing score AP, HTN, fatal or non-fatal CHD or MI
Burr 1980 [49]
South Wales hospital cohort
Father's occup (RG, 3 groups), father unemployed (> than 1 year), family size, current occup (RG, 3 groups) None Survived MI
Wadsworth 1985 [72]
British 1946 Birth Cohort
Early-life: index of father's occup and parents' edu; Adult: occup (RG), employment & edu for women Smoking, edu, father's CVD, BMI, more SBP, DBP
Faresjo 1994 [78]
Swedish Study of Men Born in 1913
Early-life: father's SES (3 groups) by occup, social class; Adult: same; all mobility relative to child SES SBP, cholesterol, smoking MI
Lynch 1994 [38]
Kuopio Study
Early-life: SES index (3 groups); Adult: current income (2 groups) None CVD mortality
Blane 1996 [64]
Collaborative Study
Early-life: father's occup (RG, 4 groups); Adult: occup (RG, 4 groups) BMI, cholesterol, DBP, smoking, activity, FEV1 BMI, cholesterol, DBP, smoking, activity, FEV1
Hart 1998 [75]
Collaborative Study
Early-life: father's occup (mnl/non-mnl); Labor force entry: occup (mnl/non-mnl); Adult: occup (mnl/non-mnl), area deprivation index Smoking, DBP, cholesterol, FEV1, angina, ischemia CVD mortality & risk factors listed
Davey Smith 1998 [44]
Collaborative Study
Early-life: father's occup: (RG, mnl/non-mnl); Adult: occup: (RG, mnl/non-mnl) Smoking, DBP, BMI, area deprivation, more Mortality from CHD & stroke
Poulton 2002 [73]
Dunedin Multidisciplinary Study
Early-life: parental occup (6 groups) at 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 & 15 years; Adult: current occup (3 groups) Infant health index, gender, adult SES BMI, WHR, SBP, smoking, alcohol dependence
Pensola 2003 [79]
Finnish census cohort
Early-life: father's occup (mnl vs. non-mnl); Adult: current occup (mnl vs. non-mnl) None CVD mortality
  1. AP = Angina pectoris; BMI = Body mass index; CHD = Coronary heart disease; DBP = Diastolic blood pressure; Edu = Education; FEV1 = Forced expiratory volume in 1 second; HTN = Hypertension; IHD = Ischemic heart disease; MI = Myocardial infarction; Mnl = Manual occupational class; Non-mnl = Non-manual occupational class; Occup = Occupation; RG = Registrar General's social class categories; SBP = Systolic blood pressure; WHR = Waist-to-hip ratio.