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Table 2 Summary of SES – CVD life course studies using an early SES → outcome design

From: Evaluating the evidence for models of life course socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review

1st Author, year & reference number
Study name
Early life SES measures Variables adjusted for other than age
Acute/ Survived MI, CVD   
Burr 1980 [49]
South Wales hospital cohort
Father's occup (RG, 3 groups), father unemployed (> 1 year), family size Current SES
Notkola 1985 [40]
East-West Study
5-level index: father's occup & farm size Current SES, CVD RF's
Coggon 1990 [37]
Stoke-on-Trent & Newcastle study
Father's occup (RG, 5 groups), height, sibling death Current SES, smoking
Hasle 1990 [48]
Danish worker's union study
8 variables (yes/no) on parent's occup, health, household, residence, edu, illness None
Kaplan 1990 [43]
Kuopio Study
Factor analysis of edu, occup, farm, farm size, perceived wealth CVD RF's
Lundberg 1993 [51]
Swedish population cohort study
4 yes/no variables: economic hardship, large family, broken family, dissension Current SES, gender
Gliksman 1995 [39]
Nurses' Health Study
Father's occup at 16 years Current SES, CVD RF's
Lamont 2000 [41]
Newcastle 1,000 Families Cohort
Birth: father's occup; 5 & 10 years: parent's occup, housing, # of adverse life events Current SES, CVD RF's
Marmot 2001 [46]
Whitehall II Study
Childhood: father's occup (RG, 4 groups), age at leaving edu
Labor force entry: Occup
Current & child SES
Wamala 2001 [45]
Stockholm Study
Early-life SES disadvantage index (0–3) of 3 variables: large family, born last, low edu Current SES, CVD RF's
Stroke   
Gliksman 1995 [39]
Nurses' Health Study
Father's occup (4 groups) at 16 years Current SES, CVD RF's
Coggon 1990 [37]
Stoke-on-Trent & Newcastle study
Father's occup (RG, 5 groups), height, sibling death Current SES, smoking
Davey Smith 1998 [44]
Collaborative Study
Father's occup (RG, 4 groups), also mnl vs. non-mnl Current SES, CVD RF's
Frankel 1999 [54]
Boyd Orr Cohort
Father's occup (RG, 5 groups) Townsend area deprivation score
Dedman 2001 [56]
Boyd Orr Cohort
Persons/room, tap water (yes/no), toilet type, ventilation, cleanliness (3 levels each) Childhood SES, area deprivation score
CHD Mortality   
Notkola 1985 [40]
East-West Study
5-level index using father's occup & farm size Current SES, CVD RF's
Lynch 1994 [38]
Kuopio Study
SES index (3 groups), by parents' edu, occup, farm, perceived wealth Current SES
Vagero 1994 [50]
Uppsala Birth Cohort Study
Occup of head of household (mnl, non-mnl, unemployed) Current SES
Gliksman 1995 [39]
Nurses' Health Study
Father's occup (4 groups) at 16 years Current SES, CVD RF's
Davey Smith 1998 [44]
Collaborative Study
Father's occup (RG, 4 groups), also divided into mnl vs. non-mnl Current SES, CVD RF's, area deprivation
Hart 1998 [42]
Collaborative Study
Early SES: father's occup; Labor force entry: Occup; At screening: occup None
Frankel 1999 [54]
Boyd Orr Cohort
Father's occup (RG, 5 groups) Townsend area deprivation score
Davey Smith 2001 [47]
Glasgow Alumni Cohort
Father's social class, (RG, 5 groups) CVD RF's
Dedman 2001 [56]
Boyd Orr Cohort
Persons/room, tap water (yes/no), toilet type, ventilation, cleanliness (3 levels each) Childhood SES, Townsend area deprivation score
Davey Smith 2002 [52]
Collaborative Study
Father's occup (mnl/non-mnl) Current SES, CVD RF's
Claussen 2003 [53]
Oslo Mortality Study
Index of housing conditions items Current SES
Osler 2003 [55]
Project Metropolit
Father's social class (3 groups) by occup Birth weight, IQ at age 12
  1. CHD = Coronary heart disease; Edu = Education; IHD = Ischemic heart disease; MI = Myocardial infarction; Mnl = Manual occupational class; Non-mnl = Non-manual occupational class; Occup = Occupation; RF = Risk factor; RG = Registrar General's social class categories.