This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Factors associated with hepatitis B vaccine series completion in a randomized trial for injection drug users reached through syringe exchange programs in three US cities
© Bowman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 25 September 2013
Accepted: 29 July 2014
Published: 9 August 2014
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a vaccine preventable infection yet vaccination rates are low among injection drug users (IDUs) despite the high risk of infection and longstanding recommendations to promote vaccination. We sought to improve vaccination rates by reaching IDUs through syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three U.S. cities.
IDUs were randomized in a trial comparing the standard HBV vaccination schedule (0, 1, and 6 months) to an accelerated schedule (0, 1, and 2 months) and participation data were analyzed to identify determinants of completion of the three-dose vaccine series. Independent variables explored included sociodemographics, injection and syringe access behaviors, assessment of health beliefs, HBV-associated knowledge, and personal health status.
Covariates associated with completion of the three-dose vaccine series were accelerated vaccine schedule (aOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.34, 2.58, p = <0.001), older age (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.07, p = <0.001), and poorer self-rated health score (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05, 1.5, p = 0.02). Completion was less likely for those getting syringes from SEP customers than for SEP customers (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19, 0.58, p = <0.001).
SEPs should offer hepatitis vaccination in a manner that minimizes time between first and last visits by accelerating the dosing schedule. Public health interventions should target younger, less healthy, and non-SEP customer participants. Other health interventions at SEPs may benefit from similar approaches that reach out beyond regular SEP customers.
KeywordsHepatitis B Vaccination Syringe exchange programs Injection drug users
The availability since 1982 of a safe and effective vaccine against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has dramatically reduced the annual incidence of acute HBV infections from an estimated 13.8 cases per 100,000 population in 1987 to an estimated 1.5 cases per 100,000 population in 2007 [1, 2]. Nevertheless, one risk group with continued high incidence is injection drug users (IDUs) [3–5]. Despite consistent recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice to target IDUs, many remain unvaccinated [5–8]. Studies of HBV vaccine programs delivered either by referral to health clinics or on-site at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) have concluded that offering convenient locations and modest financial incentives, including contingency management approaches, greatly increased vaccine uptake and completion of the three-dose series [4, 9–12]. A third approach to improving completion of the series is accelerating the schedule to shorten the usual six-month schedule. An accelerated version of the vaccine series administered over the course of two months has been shown to be similarly effective [13, 14].
Drawing on this prior research to maximize vaccine uptake among active IDUs we conducted the Hepatitis Vaccine Study (HVS) that included all three components: using syringe exchanges to find eligible high risk individuals, paying them to participate, and comparing the standard six-month and an accelerated two-month HBV vaccination schedule. The comparison was conducted as a randomized trial in at SEPs in three cities -- Hartford and Bridgeport in Connecticut and Chicago in Illinois. Participants were offered a modest monetary incentive for each dose received. A previous analysis concerned the cost-effectiveness of the two strategies . Here we report our analysis of factors associated with non-completion of the vaccine series. We hypothesized that the longer interval of the standard regimen, less frequent use of the SEP to obtain syringes, low hepatitis B knowledge, and low self-efficacy would be associated with non-completion of the vaccine series.
The research protocol was approved by the IRBs at Yale University, DePaul University (Chicago) and the Hispanic Health Council (Hartford). Participants received $10-15 for each study visit that they completed (i.e., up to $75 for the five visits).
Study sample and procedures
An in-depth description of the study sample and procedures has been published elsewhere [15, 16]. Participants were enrolled between May 2003 and March 2006 at SEP locations in the three cities. Individuals were eligible to receive the vaccine if they could demonstrate evidence of having injected within the past 30 days (injection stigmata), were 18 years of age or older, were screened for and found susceptible to HBV, and were deemed able to provide informed consent. Oral consent for screening and subsequent participation based on HBV vaccination and infection status was obtained orally prior to screening.
The outcome of interest was administration of the final vaccine dose (Dose 3) among those receiving Dose 1. A set of covariates was included to test our hypotheses and identify confounders. These included treatment group, SEP usage variables, city of enrolment, sociodemographic variables, current health status variables, injection practices, and history of either engaging in or receiving commercial sex work services. Hepatitis knowledge and psychosocial factors were also assessed. The hepatitis knowledge instrument was an adaptation of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Risk Behavior Assessment questionnaire and included 22 questions using a True/False/Don’t Know response format to assess knowledge of routes of infection, disease detection and treatment, and prevention options [17, 18]. The psychosocial instrument, developed specifically for this study and grounded in Protection Motivation Theory, contained 21 items that assessed the six constructs in the theoretical model [19, 20]. These included respondents’ perceptions about (1) personal vulnerability to HBV infection, (2) disease severity for HBV infection, (3) response efficacy of specific prevention behaviors (e.g., using SEPs, refusing to share injection equipment) in reducing risk of HBV infection, (4) self-efficacy for engaging in specific prevention behaviors, (5) social peers’ approval of the respondent engaging in HBV risk reduction behaviors (i.e., social outcome expectancy), and (6) the importance of social approval from their peers (i.e., social outcome value). Items were phrased as an “I- statements” and used a 5-point Likert response format ranging from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree. The number of items included in each sub-scale ranged from one (vulnerability and severity subscales) to seven (response efficacy) items. Inter-item correlations (Cronbach’s alpha) for the multiple-item subscales were calculated and ranged from 0.62 to 0.86. Data obtained from these items were converted to z-scores, and the mean score for each subscale was calculated. A series of questions were included concerning motives for participation that included remaining healthy, protecting the health of others, participating in research, and receiving compensation.
Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.1. Logistic regression was used to calculate bivariate associations between all co-variates and the outcome. Covariates that were significantly associated with vaccine completion at the p ≤ 0.10 level in the bivariate analyses were subsequently entered into a multivariate logistic regression model with backwards elimination of any covariate that did not remain significant at the p < 0.05 level or did not change other coefficients by >10%.
We also explored several areas of potential collinearity. To test the hypothesis that those earning more money were more likely to have had a recent medical visit and less likely to use SEPs [21, 22], chi-square tests were used to test for associations between income and doctor visits during the past year and income and SEP utilization. The laws governing syringe exchange varied with there being no limit to the number of syringes that could be received at each visit in Chicago in contrast to a cap of 30 syringes that could be received on a one-for-one basis in Hartford and Bridgeport. Therefore, to test if there was an interaction between participants’ main source of syringes and their city of enrollment, an interaction term was created and entered into a multivariate logistic regression including the interaction term and main effects with receiving Dose 3 as the outcome.
Results and discussion
Of the 860 individuals who screened susceptible to HBV infection, 595 (69.2%) returned for the Dose 1 visit and were enrolled in the vaccine study. A total of 460 participants (77.3% of those receiving Dose 1) returned for their second dose. Of the 271 randomized to the standard group, 141 (52.0% of Dose 1 recipients) returned for Dose 3, and 120 (44.4% of Dose 1 recipients) returned for the follow-up visit. Among the 324 randomized to the accelerated arm, 206 (63.6% of Dose 1 recipients) returned for Dose 3, and 116 (35.8% of Dose 1 recipients) returned for the follow-up visit.
Unadjusted correlates of dose 3 completion
Accelerated treatment group
Non-Hispanic Black/African American
Excluded Native American/Alaskan Native, Other, Refused (n = 7)
Age (continuous, range 18–68)
Less Than high school
High school or graduate equivalency degree
Some College or College graduate
Excluded missing other (14) and vocation schools (11)
Employment (Full- or part-time)
Average monthly income
Excluded missing (n = 14), and don’t know (n = 4)
Pay for housing
Self-reported health status (Likert 1 = excellent, 5 = poor)
Excluded missing (13) and don’t know (4)
Told by health care worker HCV pos
Excluded missing (15) and don’t know/unsure (4)
Doctors visit during past year
Customer of local syringe exchange
Main source of syringes, prior 30 days
Diabetic, someone else, at place you shoot
Excluded missing (37)
Most syringes from this exchange, past 3 months
EVER referred by SEP to healthcare/drug tx/social service
Excluded missing (17) don’t know (3)
Average # of shots from a syringe (range 1–75)
Total injections, prior 30 days (range 1–540)
Excluded does not apply (n = 25)
Used a needle someone else had used at least, prior 30 days
Someone paid you w/ drugs or money for sex
You paid someone with drugs or money for sex
Language of interview
Language spoken most often
Excluded missing and other (n = 3)
Social outcome expectancy
Social outcome value
Multivariate logistic regression of correlates associated with dose 3 completion (N = 430*)
Accelerated Treatment Group
Less healthy (Likert Scale 1–5)
Main source of syringes past 3 months
Direct from SEP
Direct from pharmacy
From SEP customer
This analysis, designed to compare completion rates between two dosing schedules, was constructed on the hypothesis that completion rates would be higher among the accelerated group. A second manuscript comparing efficacy between those randomized to the accelerated versus the standard schedule is in preparation. As anticipated, vaccination completion was significantly more likely among participants in the accelerated treatment group, suggesting that shortening the vaccine schedule reduces the risk of encountering barriers to participation common among IDUs, which can include incarceration or competing health care and personal needs.
Low rates of completion of the three-dose HBV vaccine series have previously been documented among IDUs especially in, but not limited to, the United States [9, 23–25]. Accelerated HBV vaccine dosing schedules that have been implemented among hard-to-reach populations including active IDUs have been shown to increase completion rates [8, 26–29]. However, none of these prior studies has used SEPs as the access point for identifying and vaccinating active injectors. In our present study, despite offering financial incentives for vaccination at SEPs, only 58% of Dose 1 recipients completed the vaccine series. However, several studies have established a consensus that paying individuals do increase vaccination completion rates in drug injecting populations [10, 30, 31].
There has been discussion regarding whether or not a booster dose is necessary for the accelerated HBV vaccine series. Although benefits of a booster dose for the accelerated HBV vaccine schedule have been suggested, several studies have concluded that booster doses are neither necessary nor is maintenance of an antibody level ≥10 mIU/mL essential for protection because an anamnestic response has been detected up to 22 years post-vaccination [32–34]. Further research would be necessary to evaluate the feasibility of offering a 12-month booster dose at SEPs. Although this might not seem a priority in light of the above findings, the lower success rate for vaccination among people who inject drugs suggests that a booster might be appropriate in this population [24, 35–39].
Completion was slightly more likely among older participants, consistent with earlier findings of low vaccination rates among young injectors and among younger people in general [8, 11, 40]. Thus, special attention should be paid to recruiting and retaining younger participants, especially since they are less likely to have already been exposed to and infected with HBV (albeit increasingly more likely in the future to have been vaccinated against HBV infection in early childhood). Multifaceted interventions, targeting youth within their community deserve further consideration. A review of the literature on services and interventions for runaway and homeless youth concluded that interventions addressing the varied and interconnected needs of youth are more successful than those targeting one problem at a time [41, 42]. Further research is needed to specifically understand barriers to vaccine program completion among young injectors.
Participants with a poorer self-rated health score were more likely to complete the vaccine series. This runs counter to expectations from previous work that found competing needs served as a barrier to health care acquisition and preventive health care, particularly among vulnerable populations including homeless adults and IDUs [43–45]. This may, instead, be one example of the potential for collinearity in the variables in our dataset. Older individuals were more likely to report poorer health (data not shown) and were also more likely to complete the vaccine series.
Compared to direct SEP customers, a significantly lower completion rate was observed among people who engaged in secondary exchange. The benefit of providing health services at SEPs has been repeatedly demonstrated [3, 9, 12, 23, 46, 47], but this advantage may be of limited benefit to non-customers. Our findings suggest that recruitment of non-SEP customers should draw on peer networks in addition to more traditional recruitment strategies (e.g., outreach, posted fliers). SEP customers who distribute SEP syringes to non-customers should be encouraged to promote participation through their own social networks, word of mouth, or easy-to-distribute promotional cards. The underlying reasons that some IDUs do not go directly to SEPs were not assessed within the current study. Further research is needed to identify barriers to SEP utilization and alternative methods for targeting this hidden population of IDUs.
This study has a number of limitations. First, participants were predominantly direct or indirect SEP customers, so the findings have limited generalizability to the full IDU population in these communities. Second, as with any study that relies on self-reported behavioral data, this evaluation may be influenced by self-report and recall bias. Third, recruitment methods were intended to simulate what would be realistic and feasible for a typical SEP with limited resources and staffing to implement a vaccination intervention; the recruitment strategy may have resulted in a non-random sampling that may have introduced unmeasured bias into the study population. Fourth, lack of adequate specificity in some of the variables collected such as sources of income, a full medical history, and the precise nature of social relationships limited a full assessment of competing subsistence or health needs. Finally, enrolment was slow. It took three years to recruit sufficient participants to power the analysis. We have previously reported that an improved study design would have involved getting rid of the two-week waiting period for test result to identify those eligible for vaccination and giving the first dose of vaccine at enrolment . This approach was also found to be most cost-effective.
The findings from this evaluation lead us to conclude that IDUs can be encouraged to participate in preventative health promotion efforts through SEPs, although services at SEPs are most likely to reach only the direct SEP customers. Since most non-completers obtained their syringes from other SEP customers, drawing on peer networks to undertake a peer-driven intervention and maintain contact with non-customers may promote completion of the vaccine series [48–51]. Specific attention is also required to encourage completion among younger and/or healthier participants to obtain and complete HBV vaccination. Our findings furthermore suggest that SEPs offering hepatitis vaccination should consider minimizing the time between first and last visits, one strategy for which is offering the first HBV vaccination at the screening visit . Finally, our results suggest that paying individuals to get vaccinated is only one of several programmatic requirements to insure maximum coverage.
Funding support was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01-DA14502). The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. The authors also thank the staff of the project: Clifton W. Sanchez and Nayda de la Rosa in Chicago; Gregory Rivera and Migdalia Texidor-Huertas in Hartford; Anthony Givens and Erin Curtin Dursa in Bridgeport. The project is indebted to the syringe exchange programs in Chicago, Hartford, and Bridgeport that agreed to participate and refer their clients.
- Goldstein ST, Alter MJ, Williams IT, Moyer LA, Judson FN, Mottram K, Fleenor M, Ryder PL, Margolis HS: Incidence and risk factors for acute hepatitis B in the United States, 1982–1998: Implications for vaccination programs. J Infect Dis. 2002, 185: 713-719.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Daniels D, Grytdal S, Wasley A: Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis --- United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009, 58 (SS03): 1-27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garfein RS, Vlahov D, Galai N, Doherty MC, Nelson KE: Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: the prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lymphotropic viruses. Am J Publ Health. 1996, 86: 655-661.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lum PJ, Hahn JA, Shafer KP, Evans JL, Davidson PJ, Stein E, Moss AR: Hepatitis B virus infection and immunization status in a new generation of injection drug users in San Francisco. J Viral Hepat. 2008, 15: 229-236.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murrill CS, Weeks H, Castrucci BC, Weinstock HS, Bell BP, Spruill C, Gwinn M: Age-specific seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among injection drug users admitted to treatment in 6 US cities. Am J Publ Health. 2002, 92: 395-398.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anonymous: Protection against viral hepatitis. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 1990, 39 (RR-2): 1-26.Google Scholar
- Mast EE, Weinbaum CM, Fiore AE, Alter MJ, Bell BP, Finelli L, Rodewald LE, Douglas JMJ, Janssen RS, Ward JW, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part II: immunization of adults. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006, 55 (RR-16): 1-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hwang L-Y, Grimes CZ, Tran TQ, Clark A, Xia R, Lai D, Triosi C, Williams M: Accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedule among drug users: a randomized controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2010, 202: 1500-1509.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Des Jarlais DC, Fisher DG, Newman JC, Trubatch BN, Yancovitz M, Paone D, Perlman D: Providing hepatitis B vaccination to injection drug users: referral to health clinics versus on-site vaccination ar a syringe exchange program. Am J Publ Health. 2001, 91: 1791-1792.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seal KH, Kral AH, Lorvick J, McNees A, Gee L, Edlin BR: A randomized controlled trial of monetary incentives vs outreach to enhance adherence to the hepatitis B vaccine series among injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depen. 2003, 71: 127-131.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuo I, SS G, Thomas DL, Strathdee SA: Hepatitis B virus infection and vaccination among young injection and non-injection drug users: missed opportunities to prevent infection. Drug Alcohol Depen. 2004, 73: 69-78.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Campbell JV, Garfein RS, Thiede H, Hagan H, Ouellet LJ, Golub ET, Hudson SM, Ompad DC, Weinbaum C, DUIT Study Team: Convenience is the key to hepatitis A and B vaccination uptake among young adult injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depen. 2007, 91 (Suppl 1): S64-S72.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jilg W, Schmidt M, Deinhardt F: Vaccination against hepatitis B: Comparison of three different vaccination schedules. J Infect Dis. 1989, 160: 766-769.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marsano LS, Greenberg RN, Kirkpatrick RB, Zetterman RK, Christiansen A, Smith DJ, DeMedina MD, Schiff ER: Comparison of a rapid hepatitis immunization schedule to the standard schedule for adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996, 91: 111-115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu Y, Grau LE, Scott G, Seal KH, Marshall PA, Singer M, Heimer R: Evaluation of hepatitis B vaccination in injection drug users through syringe exchange programs. Am J Prev Med. 2008, 35: 25-32.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Heimer R, Grau LE, Singer M, Scott G, Marshall PA, Hu Y, Seal KH: Hepatitis B virus prevalence and vaccination rates among Hispanic injection drug users participating in a vaccination campaign operated at syringe exchange programs. J Drug Issues. 2008, 38: 335-350.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Heimer R, Clair S, Grau LE, Bluthenthal RN, Marshall PA, Singer S: Hepatitis-associated knowledge is low and risks are high among HIV-savvy injection drug users in three U.S cities. Addiction. 2002, 97: 1277-1287.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- National Institute on Drug Abuse: Risk Behavior Assessment. Book Risk Behavior Assessment. 1991, North Bethesda, MD: NIDAGoogle Scholar
- Grau LE, Bluthenthal RN, Singer M, Marshall PA, Heimer R: Psychosocial and behavioral differences among drug injectors who use and do not use syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005, 9: 495-504.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rogers RW: A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. J Psychol. 1975, 91: 93-114.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bruneau J, Lamothe F, Franco E, Lachance N, Desy M, Soto J, Vincelette J: High rates of HIV infection among injection drug users participating in needle exchange programs in Montreal: results of a cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997, 146: 994-1002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miller M, Eskild A, Mella I, Moi H, Magnus P: Gender differences in syringe exchange program use in Oslo, Norway. Addiction. 2001, 96: 1639-1651.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trubatch BN, Fisher DG, Cagle HH, Fenaughty AM: Vaccination strategies for targeted and difficult-to-access groups. Am J Publ Health. 2000, 90: 447-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Quaglio G, Talamini G, Lugoboni F, Lechi A, Venturini L, Des Jarlais DC, Mezzelani P: Compliance with hepatitis B vaccination in 1175 heroin users and risk factors associated with lack of vaccine response. Addiction. 2002, 97: 985-992.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rich JD, Ching CG, Lally MA, Gaitanis MM, Schwartzapfel B, Charuvastra A, Beckwith CG, Flanigan TP: A review of the case for hepatitis B vaccination of high-risk adults. Am J Med. 2003, 114: 316-318.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marchou B, Excler JL, Bourderioux C, Salaun J, Picot N, Yvonnet B, Cerisier JE, Salomon H, Auvergnat JC: A 3-week hepatitis B vaccination schedule provides rapid and persistent protective immunity: a multicenter, randomized trial comparing accelerated and classic vaccination schedules. J Infect Dis. 1995, 172: 258-260.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altice FR, Bruce RD, Walton MR, Buitrago MI: Adherence to hepatitis B virus vaccination at syringe exchange sites. J Urban Health. 2005, 82: 151-161.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rogers N, Lubman DI: An accelerated hepatitis B vaccination schedule for young drug users. Australian & New Zealand J Public Health. 2005, 29: 305-307.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nyamathi AM, Sinha K, Saab S, Marfisee M, Greengold B, Leake B, Tyler D: Feasibility of completing an accelerated vaccine series for homeless adults. J Viral Hepat. 2009, 16: 666-673.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Topp L, Day CA, Wand H, Deacon RM, van Beek I, Haber PS, Shanahan M, Rodgers C, Maher L, Hepatitis Acceptability and Vaccine Incentives Trial (HAVIT) Study Group: A randomised controlled trial of financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion among people who inject drugs in Australia. Prev Med. 2013, 57: 297-303.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weaver T, Metrebian N, Hellier J, Pilling S, Charles V, Little N, Poovendran D, Mitchelson L, Ryan F, Bowden-Jones O, Dunn J, Glaspar A, Finch E, Strang J: Use of contingency management incentives to improve completion of hepatitis B vaccination in people undergoing treatment for heroin dependence: a cluster randomised trial. Lancet. 2014, 384: 153-163.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- European Consensus Group on Hepatitis B Immunity: Are booster immunisations needed for lifelong hepatitis B immunity?. Lancet. 2000, 355: 561-565.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Damme P, Van Herck K: A review of the long-term protection after hepatitis A and B vaccination. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007, 5: 79-84.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McMahon B, Dentinger CM, Bruden D, Zanis C, Peters H, Hurlburt D, Bulkow LF AE, Bell BP, Hennessy TW: Antibody levels and protection after hepatitis B vaccine: results of a 22-year follow-up study and response to a booster dose. J Infect Dis. 2009, 200: 1390-1396.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bayas JM, Bruguera M, Martin V, Vidal J, Rodes J, Salleras LY: Hepatitis B vaccination in prisons: The Catalonian experience. Vaccine. 1993, 11: 1441-1444.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borg L, Khuri E, Wells A, Melia D, Bergasa NV, Ho A, Kreek MJ: Methadone-maintained former heroin addicts, including those who are anti-HIV-1 seropositive, comply with and respond to hepatitis B vaccination. Addiction. 1999, 94: 489-493.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lugoboni F, Magliozzi S, Schiesari F, Pauletto N, Bovo GL, Ciaffoni S: Mezzelani: Immunoresponse to hepatitis B vaccination and adherence campaign among injecting drug users. Vaccine. 1997, 15: 1014-1016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lum PJ, Ochoa K, Hahn JA, Shafer KP, Evans JL, Moss AR: Hepatitis B virus immunization among young injection drug users in San Francisco, Calif: the UFO Study. Amer J Publ Health. 2003, 93: 919-923.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodrigo JM, Serra MA, Aparisi L, Escudero A, Gilabert MS, Garcia F, Gonzalez R, del Olmo JA, Wassel AH, Artero A, Nogueira JM: Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in parenteral drug abusers. Vaccine. 1992, 10: 798-801.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wong EK, Bodsworth NJ, Slade MA, Mulhall BP, Donovan B: Response to hepatitis B vaccination in a primary care setting: influence of HIV infection, CD4+ lymphocyte count and vaccination schedule. Intl J STD AIDS. 1996, 7: 490-494.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Slesnick N, Dashora P, Letcher A, Erdem G, Serovich J: A review of services and interventions for runaway and homeless youth: Moving forward. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2009, 31: 732-742.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sears C, Guydish JR, Weltzien EK, Lum PJ: Investigation of a secondary syringe exchange program for homeless young adult injection drug users in San Francisco, California. USA J AIDS. 2001, 27: 193-201.Google Scholar
- Gelberg L, Gallagher TC, Andersen RM PK: Competing priorities as a barrier to medical care among homeless adults in Los Angeles. Am J Public Health. 1997, 87: 217-220.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Schlossstein E, St Clair P, Connell F: Referral keeping in homeless women. J Community Health. 1991, 16: 279-285.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stein MD, Friedmann PD: Need for medical and psychosocial services among injection drug users: a comparative study of needle exchange and methadone maintenance. AM J Addiction. 2002, 11: 262-270.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perlman DC, Perkins MP, Solomon N, Kochems L, Des Jarlais DC, Paone D: Tuberculosis screening at a syringe exchange program. Am J Publ Health. 1997, 87: 862-863.Google Scholar
- Grau LE, Arevalo S, Catchpool C, Heimer R: Expanding harm reduction services through a wound and abscess clinic. Am J Publ Health. 2002, 92: 1915-1917.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Broadhead RS, Heckathorn DD, Weakliem DL, Anthony DL, Madray H, Mills RJ, Hughes J: Harnessing peer networks as an instrument for AIDS prevention: results from a peer-driven intervention. Public Health Rep. 1998, 113 (Suppl 1): 42-57.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Broadhead RS, Heckathorn DD, Altice FL, van Hulst Y, Carbone M, Friedland GH, O’Connor PG, Selwyn PA: Increasing drug users’ adherence to HIV treatment: results of a peer-driven intervention feasibility study. Soc Sci Med. 2002, 55: 235-246.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Broadhead RS, Volkanevsky VL, Rydanova T, Ryabkova M, Borch C, van Hulst Y, Fullerton A, Sergeyev B, Heckathorn DD: Peer-driven HIV interventions for drug injectors in Russia: First year impact results of a field experiment. Int J Drug Policy. 2006, 17: 379-392.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smyrnov P, Broadhead RS, Datsenko O, Matiyash O: Rejuvenating harm reduction projects for injection drug users: Ukraine’s nationwide introduction of peer-driven interventions. Int J Drug Policy. 2012, 23: 141-147.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/820/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.